What nature reserves and national parks, everyone knows.Maybe just not exactly understand the difference between one concept from another.Let's try to figure it out.
What national parks
To understand what the nature reserves and national parks, it is necessary to know the exact definition of these concepts.So, national parks - a special natural areas on land or water, which fully or partially prohibited by human activity.The main purpose - the protection of the environment, t. E. The preservation of valuable natural complexes of flora and fauna.These places are open to the public for nature lovers and tourists.
addition to environmental protection, national parks are research institutions, as well as carry out environmental education role.It is important to understand that the territory and the individual properties that relate to these natural complexes, are to the state special ecological, aesthetic and historical value.In addition, it is an excellent place for organizing international regulated tourism.
All national parks of our country are the objects of property of the Russian Federation.Historical and cultural properties are assigned to them on the basis of operational management.The territory of the national parks is restricted security zone with an orderly regime of wildlife and visit.
Reserves Reserves are distinguished by the fact that in their territories is strictly forbidden not only what whatever economic activity, but also to find people there.According to the law of the Russian Federation, these territories passed Reserves in perpetuity.That our country is famous for its large number of state protected areas, while in the world of their units.
Reserves and National Parks of Russia, there are almost all regions, so different specific landscapes, unique flora and fauna, most of which are listed as endangered and carefully protected by the state.
Reserves are objects of federal importance, so every year from the state budget funds allocated for their maintenance.What is the nature reserve and national parks can be understood on the basis of the main tasks they perform.Thus, the objectives of the reserve are:
- take all necessary measures for the conservation and enhancement of biological diversity of protected natural areas, keeping them in a state of nature in protected areas;
- conducting research work;
- environmental monitoring, as well as the implementation of environmental education of the population;
- assisting in the training of specialists on the protection of the environment;
- participate in the environmental state examination in the design object placement business and other activities.
territory of the Russian nature reserves exclude the use of mineral resources, water, plants and hunt animals because they are of particular value to the world of science.They are examples of wildlife that are typical for a particular region, and contribute to the preservation of the genetic fund of rare species of flora and fauna.
main objectives of national parks
main objectives of the national parks are:
- preserve the integrity and unique natural sites and historical and cultural sites located within their borders;
- remedy the historical, cultural and natural sites;
- create optimal conditions for regulated tourism and cultural activities of citizens;
- practical use of new scientific methods in the field of environmental protection;
- environmental education.
Nature Reserves and National Parks - are objects of federal importance financed by funds allocated from the federal budget.
What's reserves and national parks - is understandable.A differ from these so-called natural parks?The fact that the status and objectives are similar to the national ones.The main difference is that they do not have the status of federal importance and the responsibility of the republic, territory or area in which are located.Accordingly, funding is provided from the local budget.For example, in the Urals "Taganay" is a national park, and "Chusovaya River" and "Deer Streams" - this is a unique natural parks.
National Parks Russian
At present, Russia has more than 40 national parks, each with its special natural attractions, whether it be animals, birds, plants and unique historic properties.
Championship in the number of national parks rightfully belongs to the North-West Federal District of Russia, especially the Republic of Karelia and the Arkhangelsk region.Here lie the unique parks: Vodlozersky, Kenozersky, Kalevala, "Russian Arctic", "Curonian Spit", Valdai, and many others.
Nature Reserves and National Parks of the World
More than 38 nature reserves occupy vast, many kilometers of Russian territory.These include: the Altai, Baikal, Bashkir, Barguzin, Darwin, Zavidovsky, Kandalaksha, Ilmensky, Komsomol, "Cedar Pad" Kronotsky, Pechora-Ilych, Sayano-Shushenskaya, Caucasian, and many others.
Of these reserves and national parks of the tundra: Kandalaksha, Pechora-Ilych, Taimyr, Great Arctic, "Yugyd Ba", Lapland, Wrangel Island.Scientists conducted the study of the typical tundra ecosystems, as well as observation of rare birds (snowy owl, ptarmigan, peregrine falcon), a unique population of wild reindeer, arctic fox and the representatives of the aquatic fauna (whitefish, salmon, etc.).
tundra in Siberia stretches along the narrow coastal strip and reaches a maximum width - 500 km (from north-east, Russia to the south, to the northern part of Kamchatka).Most of the northern part of Sweden also takes the band Swedish Lapland tundra.Small patches of tundra are found in Finland, Norway, Iceland.Therefore, there have also been set up controlled environmental facilities.
Known reserves and national parks of the world, protecting the flora and fauna of tundra ecosystems "Urho Kekkonen," and "Lemmenjoki" belonging to Finland;"Abisko", referring to Sweden;Norwegian "Hardangervidda".