Pragmatism in philosophy (W. James, Charles Peirce, John Dewey)

Pragmatism in philosophy there in the 70s of the XIX century, the basic idea of ​​the flow were made by Charles Pierce.The pragmatists believed that a fully reformed philosophy, abandoning its basic principles and deciding to use your own approach to dealing with human life.The fundamental idea of ​​the flow - a practical attitude to life of every individual.Pragmatism in philosophy, in short, offers not spend the time to solve theoretical problems that have no relation to reality, and are interested only in human, urgent problems and consider all from the standpoint of their own vygody.Kak mentioned above, the founder of the movement was the Charles Pierce.It is important to note that his philosophical doctrine is not confined solely to the pragmatism and its justification.Pearce says that thinking is necessary only to develop sustainable beliefs, that is a conscious willingness to act one way or another in each case.The knowledge of his philosophy - this is not a transition from ignorance to knowledge, and the movement of the doubt to a solid belief.Pierce believed that true belief that if the action based thereon, results in a corresponding bottom line.The so-called "principle of Peirce" defines the whole philosophy of pragmatism, the whole essence of human ideas exhausted real (practical) results that can be learned from them.Also, from the teachings of Pierce followed by three basic ideas directions:

  • thinking is to achieve a subjective psychological satisfaction;
  • the truth - is what appears as a practical result;
  • things - a set of practical implications.

William James, a follower of the ideas of Peirce says that every person has its own philosophy.The reality is multifaceted, and each individual's own way of perception and the aggregate of all of these processes leads to the creation of a pluralistic view of the world.Truth - is that more things suitable for particular situations and most appropriate experience of each individual.Pragmatism in philosophy, James also builds on the perception of truth as something that has a practical embodiment.His famous quote: "Truth is - it is a credit card, which is valid only in certain circumstances."

modern Western philosophy pragmatism of John Dewey considered as having the greatest influence on the teaching of all areas of the United States.Dewey argued that the philosophy of creating a democratic society.He developed the theory of scientific research, but science in his teachings - a method by which people take the most appropriate action.Objective knowledge of the world is impossible.Cognition - the active intervention of the subject in the process of research, experimentation on the object.The thinking used to solve problematic situations.Reality is created in the process of scientific investigation.Various products of the activity of society (law, idea) does not reflect reality, and serve to provide practical benefits in a given situation.