In connection with the latest events in the world: the crisis of authority and the armed conflict in Ukraine, conflict of interest and revitalization of the militias of the Islamic state in Syria and Libya, the issue of national security is becoming one of the most pressing international issues.At a time when every major country or already has nuclear capability, or preparing to get it, no one in the world can be completely confident in his future.And even worse, and must appear dimmer future citizens of Russia, the more countries join the sanctions and openly express their outrage at the actions of our country.
From many Western publications, in English-speaking social networks and blogs are already dozens of articles directly calling for the start of military operations against Russia.So why open expansion still can not start?Are our European and American partners stopped previously signed agreements?And why, then, the same arrangements are not prevented them from start to bombard Iraq, to bomb Syria and Libya?What exactly needs to be a wave of "orange revolutions" in the former Soviet republics, and why it is so important for the United States to place a missile defense base in their boundaries?
One of the answers to the questions can serve as a perfect idea of the existence of such weapons, as a system of guaranteed retaliation "Perimeter".
concept of creating
Let's go back for a moment in time and imagine how we lived our family during the "cold war."Tightly closed "curtain", the presence of a strong and constantly growing "external enemy", no more or less influential supporters abroad.In this situation, any well-placed blow could be the last for our country.And the more tense atmosphere, the more information about the American concept of limited nuclear war appeared in the press.According to this doctrine, a preemptive strike on the territory of the USSR assumed complete destruction as the main command center of the Union, as well as key components of the command system, "Kazbek", and the severance of links SRF.
in such a situation could make almost decapitated and destruction of the state?Just last loud and beautiful to slam the door, so much so that the "cotton" will long be remembered.Give the latter is meaningless fight, cause a retaliatory nuclear strike when a guided missile will be no one left.It is with these thoughts and proceeded leading Soviet scientists in the development of one of the worst modern guns forever be remembered as "a weapon of Judgment."
So, what is the Russian system of "perimeter"?And what is its main feature?System "Perimeter" - "Dead Hand" - a set of automatic control of a massive nuclear strike.Its main purpose - is to ensure guaranteed start of nuclear missiles in service with the Soviet Union, in the event that the country will suffer a crushing blow to the enemy, which will destroy all command units, capable of giving the order to return maneuver.
Thus, on a plan of their creators, the nuclear system "Perimeter" could produce training and missile launch, even in the case if all were killed, and to order that it would be just nobody.It is this idea of retaliation, producing already below the death system in the West and received its second name - "dead hand".In the East it was called more precisely - "The hand of the grave."
The principle of
The developers perimeter protection system of the country's borders were two global challenges.Firstly, the system had to give some semblance of artificial intelligence, at the right time she was able to independently realize that its time has come.Secondly, it was also necessary to debug and options for shutdown and startup of the program in case of unforeseen situations.Simply put, it was to be able to monitor the environment, checking about a hundred different indicators, and have a "stop-cock", which responds to a direct order of the trip.
After several fruitless attempts to developers have been able to create complex, which, as incredible as it may sound, fully meet all their requirements.So what did they do?
As you know, any existing in the world is able to rocket up in the air only in one case - if there is a clear order.The procedure for the transfer of such an order is ridiculously simple.According to team communication lines transmitted a code which removes all locking systems and authorizes ignition engines.The rocket lifted into the air and carried to its target.But what to do when there is no possibility to order?
In this case, the duty to give orders to the system of delegated "Perimeter".She studied the situation and analyzing the internal and external political situation, the presence or absence of communication with the staff, as well as electromagnetic background throughout the country, to make decisions and give the command to start.
At a signal from the smart program in the air rose one single missile that flew not perceived enemy, and through the main location of the Soviet nuclear-missile system.It is this rocket, which, like the whole complex as a whole, had the title "Perimeter".And that it is located by using her radio, and to signal the entire military might of the country.Once the code has been received, all existing and mothballed boosters do volley towards the alleged enemy.So ensure victory turned around at least a crushing defeat.
system retaliation "Perimeter" was "conceived" back in August 1974, when the task is to develop a special missile system has been put in front of "Southern".Initially, as a basic missile was planned to use the model MR-UR100, but later settled on MR UR1000UTTH.
Draft project was completed in December 1975.According to him, a rocket install special head part, which includes the radio systems developed by OKB LPI.In addition it was also necessary to create a program of stabilization and that throughout the flight the rocket was a constant orientation in space.
Flight testing of the finished rockets were led by the State Commission, and with the personal involvement of the Deputy Chief of Staff of the Strategic Missile Forces Vladimir Korobushin.In the experiment was given ten identical rockets, but the first few starts were so successful that it was decided to focus on the seven volleys.
parallel has also created a special launcher - 15P716.According to information received, its main components are the team rocket and receivers capable of receiving orders and command codes by missiles.
According to unconfirmed reports launcher is a highly protected complex mine-type OS, but does not rule out the possibility of arranging team missiles and other types of media.
After flight testing before the creators of the complex has been tasked to develop additional advanced features that let you give the order to launch missiles not only ground complex, but also nuclear submarines and long-range aircraft and naval missile aviation (like standing on the ground, and carrying combatduty).
Finally, all work on the system "Perimeter" was completed in March 1982, and in January 1985, the complex has been put on duty, where he had served until the end of 1995.
Components included in the set of "Perimeter"
course, an accurate description of all system components and how they should interact with each other is nowhere.However, even under the most indirect information suggests that the system of protection of the perimeter boundaries of the state - is a complex multipurpose complex, equipped with a variety of different communication lines and transmitters.
There are several assumptions about the algorithm of the complex.In the first case, it is believed that, being on constant alert, "Perimeter" takes data from multiple tracking systems, including radar and early warning of missile attack.After receiving the signals transmitted by several independent command posts, which are located at a great distance from each other and duplicate his testimony (according to unconfirmed reports of only four posts).
It is in these areas, and based most mystical component "Perimeter" - her main autonomous control-command system.This unit, which has all the features of artificial intelligence, capable of summing the data transmitted from different monitoring stations, to conclude that the probability of a nuclear attack.Here the principle is very simple to work and is based on the verification of the four basic conditions.
analyzed all the data received, the system concludes that, whether committed by a nuclear attack.Then check the link with the General Staff.If the link is present, it is already beginning to gain momentum again turned off the system.If the headquarters is no answer, the program tries to connect with the main anti-missile shield the country - "Kazbek".If there is no answer, the system will delegate the right decision every person on this point in the command bunker.If no order should not be, only then the program begins to operate.
Another embodiment of the system excludes the possibility of artificial intelligence.He assumes command rocket manual start.According to this theory, the magic nuclear suitcase is in the hands of the President.And for information about the application of massive nuclear strike against the country's leaders can put the system into battle mode.
Then, if it is for an hour does not receive the new signals and can not get in touch with any of the command center, the system "Perimeter" Russia automatically starts the procedure retaliation.If the signal arrives at the headquarters of the false alarm, all the alarm systems "Perimeter" again go into tracking mode.(Presumably cancel the entire procedure takes about 15 minutes.)
According to unconfirmed sources, the main weapon of Russia - all protection systems "Perimeter" - are located in the Urals, in the Mount Kosvinsky Stone.This mountain range is located about Konzhakovsky stone in the Northern Urals, it reaches a height of 1519 meters and is composed mainly of pyroxenite and duanitov.It is thanks to his, you could say, natural origin the tank, according to the American journalist Blair, is the subject of the admiration by the American strategists since there through all granite thickness, you can keep in touch using VLF radio signal (propagating even in the nuclearwar) with all systems of the Russian strategic aviation.
original location for the building served as a waste bin horizontal platinum mine, which themselves have been the object of a secret.Duanity, which are the main mineral for the manufacture of refractory block scanning radio waves and not allow the enemy radio signals to pinpoint the exact location of the object.
To ensure uninterrupted supply of bunker near him was given more power transmission lines, build a new bridge and made a dirt road.The nearby village Kytlym gradually expands to the size of the military camp, work is underway on the construction of new homes for soldiers and officers, mounted other infrastructure.
main weapons complex
main elements of the system of protection ("Perimeter", as the reader understand) is a stand-alone command the IRS, including its membership in various transfer centers, and data analysis systems of command and missiles.
Among the complexes belonging to the "Perimeter", can be singled out:
- stationary command and control center system in the Sverdlovsk region under the mountain Kosvinsky stone.
- The mobile command and control center.
- 1353 command and control center, located in the Sumy region, in the town of Glukhov (1990 and 1991) and is now transferred to the city Kartaly.
- 1193 command and control center (located in Nizhny Novgorod region, in the small town of Far Konstantinovo-5 since 2005).
- 15P175 "Siren" - the mobile compactor complex command missiles.
- "Perimeter RC" - command modernized missile system with the command on a missile RT-2PM "Topol" (atonement on combat duty in 1990).
Certainly, the development and establishment of a system of this level and magnitude - is not one decade.And creating it would not be possible without a competent and operational work of many talented scientists.Since the "Perimeter" (protection system "dead hand"), as well as all of its components, is still absolutely secret, even to find detailed information about its creators and their fate is not possible.
Among the major developers of "Perimeter" specifically know the name of only one man - Vladimir Yarynich that after the collapse of the Soviet Union continued to live and work in the United States, where he told in an interview with Wired magazine about the existence of the guaranteed retaliation "Perimeter".(By the way, according to the words Yarynich system is on manual control is activated, and by order of the head of state.)
About the other creators of the complex is little known.Thus, participation in the design and installation of the equipment took a lot of companies.Key among them - an NGO "Pulse" under the leadership of V. Melnikov, CDB "Geophysics" under the GF Ignatieff, TSKBTM with BR Aksyutin and many others.
Work on the "Perimeter" was supervised by so many different ministries and agencies that still seems inexplicable that the creation of the complex remained a secret for so long.
Current status and operation of the complex
about the fate of this "dead hand" is little known.According to the documents, perimeter security system of the country stood in service until June 1995.And then, in the framework of an agreement on general disarmament, it was removed from combat duty.According to other sources, is a significant event occurred in September 1995, and perimeter security system was not removed, but only upgraded.And to replace the rocket 15A11 team came a new generation of missile RT-2PM "Topol".
precise data about the current state of affairs is nowhere.However, in 2009 the American Wired Magazine once again told his readers that the Russian weapons - System "Perimeter" - still exists and is still functioning.This information was confirmed in December 2011, Commander of the Strategic Missile Forces Lieutenant General SV Karakaevym, who in an interview again said that the complex is in a dormant state and is on duty.
Also from unconfirmed sources that it is located still on duty "Perimeter" (protection system "dead hand") and allowed Vladimir Putin said that Russia is capable of if you want to destroy the United States in less than thirtyminutes.In fact, today is the time that at times to protect the interests of the state and will not be superfluous to scare so to speak opponent.
I want to believe that the system of "Perimeter" in 2014, is still in working order and all its characteristics is not inferior to the previous model.
media about the "Perimeter"
As mentioned earlier, the main publication of the system appeared in the 90s of the last century in the western and American magazines.This newspaper Wired renamed the system "Perimeter" in the "dead hand".Also, a number of publications and has passed a number of Japanese periodicals.With their light arms system of guaranteed retribution it became known as the "Hand of the coffin."
on the territory of the Russian Federation, as well as all post-Soviet republics, articles about the complex is extremely small.About his work in their reviews mentioned only the "Rossiyskaya Gazeta".System "Perimeter", "dead hand" - these and other names rarely seen in the media.The main source of information for Russian users still remain data taken from the Internet and translated from foreign languages.