each sphere of professional activity of the person correspond to their forms of professional ethics.Thus all of them have certain specific characteristics.
Ethics - a discipline that considers the moral aspects of human behavior.Its study acquaints us with the diversity of rules and relationships between people.All kinds of professional ethics are certain rules.They review the procedure and samples of internal regulation of man.The basis in this case accepted ethical ideals.One type of the discipline concerns the medical sphere.
This doctrine introduces us to the highest moral character, which should have a man in whose hands is the life of his patients.To date, all the basic rules of this discipline contained in a document called "The Code of Ethics of the Russian doctor."It was adopted in 1994.The traditional ethics of the doctor is expected to address the personal qualities and the relationship of doctor and patient.
Life does not stand still.At the present stage of development of society was necessary in the creation of some form of professional medical ethics.This exercise is intended to outline the permissible limits, which permitted the manipulation of human life and death.All these actions must necessarily observe morality and health of the patient.And here comes the protection of human life Bioethics.
Bioethics - a complex phenomenon, taking place in modern culture.It emerged in the US in the 60s-70s of the last century.The term "bioethics" was proposed by an American oncologist Potter in 1970.It was he who called for doctors and biologists pool their efforts to ensure decent living conditions for people.According to Potter, bioethics - is not just the science of survival.This is a new wisdom, combine the knowledge of the biological industry and existing human values.
As for the term "bioethics", a concept, or rather its content, after some time has changed significantly.The first place went interdisciplinary studies moral, anthropological, legal and social issues, which contributed to the emergence of the latest genetic and reproductive transplantologicheskie biomedical technologies.
In the seventies of the last century in America created the first educational and research centers, where he studied bioethics.It drew attention to the discipline studied the problems of religious leaders, journalists and politicians.Interest some questions and the general public.
development of bioethics in the next decade enabled it to gain recognition in the countries of Western Europe.In the nineties, the study of this discipline has received considerable attention in Eastern Europe (including Russia) and in Asia (especially in China and Japan).
Bioethics - a doctrine designed to detect a difference of positions on complicated moral issues arising in connection with the development progress of biomedical science and practice.This discipline aims to answer the following questions:
- Is it possible to engage in human cloning?
- Is it permissible to creating special genetic methods "breed" a person with high intellectual and physical qualities?
- Do I have the consent of relatives of the deceased if the fence is planned to produce organs for transplantation seriously ill people?
- Do I need to say to the patient that he is terminally ill?Etc.
task of bioethics is to find socially acceptable and morally sound decisions such issues.Of course, there is a legitimate doubt and need any medical bioethics at all?After all, there is the Hippocratic Oath.It is for many centuries teaches lessons of morality doctors.The preservation of life on our planet active role played by many leading physicists.They organize the movement, calling to ban the testing of nuclear weapons.The lessons of morality and humanity teaches biology, fighting for the protection of our environment.
But Hippocratic ethics and bioethics have certain differences.The first of these two exercises are purely corporate nature.For many centuries, it is considering a doctor as a moral subject, designed to fulfill its duty to the patient.The patient is considered to be suffering from the same individual.He is passive and does not participate in making important decisions for his life.The subject of bioethics - the patient as an active moral subject.At the same time he is able to engage in dialogue or even a competitive relationship with the scientists and doctors.
new discipline not canceled the traditional values, such as compassion and charity, moral responsibility of doctors and the principle nenaneseneniya harm to the patient.Only in today's cultural and social situation of all these points get a new meaning and significance.
subject of bioethics - is unique and unique personality of each individual.This discipline recognizes the right of each person to make their own the most important decisions that affect his life.
worth noting that biologists or doctors as experts have the knowledge about the process of human cloning.However, to prevent such actions, they can not.It is abroad of their professional competence.That is why one of the characteristics of bioethics is its development with the participation of specialists in various disciplines.In this list there are biologists and psychologists, doctors and philosophers, politicians and lawyers, etc.And no wonder, because the problems that arise in connection with the development of medicine and biology, so diverse and complex that their solution is possible only with the joint efforts of people who have some knowledge and experience.
Bioethics has another important feature: the history has long shown that the imposition of a system of national society, ideological and other valuables - are very dangerous.That is why bioethics is not just studied moral issues arising from the development of society.With its participation created different institutions typical of pluralistic societies.An example of this can serve as ethics committees, working in hospitals and research centers.What
focuses on bioethics?
morality and health - that's the foundation that serves to make appropriate recommendations by modern science of the moral relationship.It considers such major problems:
- definition of the fact of death;
- experiments on humans and animals;
- the relationship between doctor and patient;
- hospice organization;
- attitude towards people are mentally handicapped;
- procreation (surrogacy, genetic engineering, etc.).
Problems of bioethics relate ethical side actions such as sterilization and contraception, and abortion.They are all modern forms of interference in reproductive medicine.
Consider, for example, abortion.If it violates the basic principle of the Hippocratic Oath, which reads: "Do no harm"?Can it be done with an ethical point of view?If so, always or only in certain cases?Answers to these questions depend on the moral principles and professional training of the physician.
problems relating to bioethics and artificial insemination.On the one hand, the latest reproductive technologies affect the nature of marriage, which is the most important human values.On the other - for some of the spouses is the only way to have a baby.Bioethics in this case calls adhere to the brink, when artificial insemination helps desperate women, not turning this into a kind of manipulation of a particular experiment.
controversial issue before the bioethics is surrogacy.With this method, the fertilized egg from the biological parents are making the uterus completely different woman.This is necessary for a surrogate mother carrying a child.After birth, the baby she gives birth parents.On the one hand, this manipulation performed on the physical nature of the child, on the other - the only chance for some couples to create a full family.
Fierce debate still revolve around such issues as human cloning is possible with the latest developments of genetic engineering.In the discussion of the moral side of the issue are involved biologists and doctors, politicians and philosophers.Do not sidestep this issue and priests.Currently, there are two completely opposite point of view.One of them comes from the fact that cloning is quite unethical and is safe for man and society.Proponents of this view believe that cloning is the way to immortality and eliminate diseases.But there is also the opposite view.His supporters believe that such manipulation is immoral.In addition, it carries the potential danger, because science can not yet predict all the possible consequences of this experiment.
very complex legal and ethical issues generated transplantology.Today transplanted heart, liver, lung, and bone marrow, etc.Problems in this area concern the obligations and rights of the donor and his relatives, medical staff, establishing the fact of irreversible destruction.
One of the most hotly debated ethical issues today concerns euthanasia.This deliberate acceleration of the death of the patient is considered incurable.Euthanasia designed to stop the suffering of the patient.This action is contrary to the views of all religious denominations, as well as the Hippocratic Oath.But at the same time, finally resolved the issue is not considered.
Basic principles of discipline
in bioethics there are basic concepts.They supported science in solving the urgent problems of our time.The basic principles of bioethics:
- respect for human dignity;
- doing no evil, and the creation of good;
- the autonomy of the individual;
- observance of justice.
Science adheres to the four rules.This confidentiality and truthfulness, informed consent and privacy with regard to privacy.The principles of bioethics in conjunction with the rules form a kind of ethical coordinates that characterize the attitude to the patient as an individual.
development of bioethics in Russia
Background of the considered discipline manifested in our country in the early nineties.However, this does not mean that bioethics emerged in Russia only at the end of the last century.In contrast, the majority of biomedical technologies were first created in our country.An example is the device that allows for cardiopulmonary bypass.It was created by SSBryukhonenko back in 1926. In the same year opened the world's first Institute of Blood Transfusion.In addition, in 1931, JJRaven in the clinical setting has been carried out kidney allograft.A notable was in 1937 and then held the world's first surgery to implant an artificial heart muscle.Led by this experiment VPDemihov, and he was on probation Christian Bernard.
It is in Russia for the first time in the world in 1920, all restrictions were lifted legislation on abortion.In the twenties of the last century, Russian scientists school ASSerebrovsky a series of fundamental research as a result of which it was possible to prove the complex structure of the gene.
wide range of activities in different areas of medical technology in the Soviet Union was fought constantly and very successfully.However, the ethics of scientific research in Russia during the years of Soviet power be generated simply could not.One reason for this is the ideology of the state.Science in the USSR was considered not only the productive power of society, but also the highest value chelovekoobrazuyuschey culture.
However, despite this, bioethics in Russia gradually began to gain their positions.Thus Soviet philosopher Frolov question was raised about the value of scientific achievements in terms of human welfare.In 1995, the first published manuscript M.K.Perova.This Russian methodology back in the 60s has formulated the idea that science is blind to everything human.
new stage in the development of bioethics
At the end of the last century, Russia has taken the path of democratization.This was the basic premise of that rapidly began to develop Bioethics.The concept of discipline is constantly mentioned was fixed not only in the research but also in publishing, theoretical and educational and training levels.
In the organizational system of scientific institutions in Russia at the present time there are special structural units.These include sector bioethics, who works in the Institute of Human Sciences, Institute of Philosophy lab "Axiology of knowledge and ethics of science" and many others.
In 2000, Russia adopted a state educational standard.According to this document, the discipline of "Bioethics" was mandatory for training in medical schools of the country.This approach is endorsed educational conference in 1995, which dealt with issues of arts education in higher medical and pharmaceutical educational institutions of the Russian Federation.Introduction to Bioethics has been recommended as a separate course in preparing students in the senior years.
In 1995 saw the light of the special program.It was created at the Institute of retraining and advanced training of teachers Social Sciences and Humanities at Moscow State University.Lomonosov.This program is intended for teachers, teaching students on a specialty "Biomedical ethics".
Currently familiar with the problems of modern medicine can be ethical issues in the literature.It is very popular in this area are the magazines "Man" (Editor - BG Yudin) and "Medical Law and Ethics" (Editor - Myl'nikov IS).For medical students and published literature, which deals with bioethics.Yudin and Tishchenko, Ignatiev, Ivanyushkin, Siluyanova, short are the authors of several papers on the subject.
Currently discipline that studies the moral aspect of the relationship of modern medicine and human encompasses many challenges.Thanks Bioethics and deepens dramatically expands the understanding of the individual in his ethical and natural and biological aspects.Issues addressed by this doctrine, are on the verge of two sciences.This anthropology and biology.As a key point of this science are the true essence, the search of man.
Recently, increasingly there is a process of forming bioethical world society.This is facilitated by two reasons - global and local.The first one is related to the probability of the dangerous consequences of scientific and technological progress in medicine and biology, which are accompanied by the constant emergence of new problem situations of moral and ethical character.This situation is to some extent affect the interests of the whole human society.The dynamism of this process is increasing.This is due to the increasing democratization of public relations.This is considered to be one of the fundamental human right to life, to health, to death and to receive information.
second reason for the development of bioethics, local, identify the specific nature of the development of this science.Here its influence humanization of society as a whole and of the individual, the process that causes the transformation of the traditional and medical ethics, medicine, etc. technologizationAll these factors influence the development of bioethics in both positive and negative terms.
Today in our country there is a clear relationship to the actualization of this discipline.However, even those who are aware of the humanistic value of bioethical issues, recognizes the ongoing process of the formation of the respective outlook.Sometimes perceived as similar lifestyle, the West imposed upon us.