Kievan Rus - medieval state, which arose in the IX.The first grand dukes placed his residence in the city of Kiev, which, according to legend, was founded in the VI.three brothers - Kyi, Schek and Horiv.The government quickly entered a phase of prosperity and took an important international position.This was facilitated by the establishment of political and trade relations with such powerful neighbors, Byzantium and Khazar Khanate.
name "Russian land" was assigned to the state with its capital in Kiev during the reign of Askold (IX cent.).In the "Tale of Bygone Years" his name is mentioned next to the Dir - elder brother.To date, there are no data on its board.This gives grounds for a number of historians (eg, Rybakov BA) to associate the name of Deer with another nickname Askold.Moreover, still unresolved question of the origin of the first rulers of Kiev.Some researchers believe their Varangian governors, other findings origin of Askold and Dir of field (the descendants Kyi).
«Tale of Bygone Years" gives you some important information about the reign of Askold.In 860, he made a successful campaign to Byzantium and even held for a week in obloge Constantinople.According to legend, he made the Byzantine ruler to recognize Russia as an independent state.But in 882 Askold was killed Oleg, who then sat on the throne of Kiev.
Board Oleg Oleg - the first Grand Prince of Kiev, who ruled in 882-912 years.According to legend, it received power from Rurik in Novgorod in 879, as regent of his infant son, and then moved to Kiev residence.In 885 Oleg joined his principality land Radimichi, Slaven Krivichy and then made a trip to Ulichi and Tivertsy.In 907 he made against the mighty Byzantine Empire.The brilliant victory Oleg Nestor described in detail in his work.Hike the Grand Duke, not only contributed to strengthening the position of Russia in the international arena, but also opened access to free trade with the Byzantine Empire.New victory Oleg at Constantinople in 911 reaffirmed the privileges of Russian merchants.
That these events end stage of formation of the new state with the center in Kiev and starts during his heyday.
Board Igor and Olga
After the death of Oleg came to power the son of Rurik - Igor (912-945 gg.).Like his predecessor, Igor had to deal with disobedience princes subordinate tribal alliances.His reign begins with a clash Drevlyane, convict and Tivertsy, where the Grand Duke overlaid excessive tribute.Such a policy and defined its quick death at the hands of rebellious Drevlyane.According to legend, when Igor once again came to collect tribute, they bowed down two birch trees, tied to the tops of his feet and released.
After the death of the prince ascended the throne of his wife Olga (945-964 gg.).The main objective of its policy was revenge for the death of her husband.She resisted all antiryurikovskie mood Drevlyane and finally subordinate to their authority.In addition, the name of Olga Great connected the first attempt baptism of Kievan Rus, which was unsuccessful.Policies aimed at the proclamation of Christianity as the state religion continued following the grand dukes.
Svyatoslav Svyatoslav - the son of Igor and Olga - the rules in 964-980 years.He was active and aggressive foreign policy almost did not care about the internal problems of the state.First, during his absence management engaged Olga, after her death, the three parts of state affairs (Kiev, Drevlyansky earth and Novgorod) was headed by the great Russian princes Yaropolk, Oleg and Vladimir.
Svyatoslav made a successful campaign against the Khazar Khanate.Before his entourage could not resist such a powerful fortress as Samandar, Sarkel, Itil.In 967, he launched the Balkan campaign.Svyatoslav captured territories in the lower reaches of the Danube, took Pereyaslav and planted there his deputy.In the next campaign in the Balkans, he managed to subdue virtually all Bulgaria.But on the way home squad was defeated Sviatoslav Pechenegs, held in collusion with the emperor of Byzantium.In obloge died and the Grand Duke.
of Vladimir the Great Vladimir
was the illegitimate son of Sviatoslav, as born of Malusha - housekeeper Princess Olga.Father put the future of the great ruler on the throne in Novgorod, but in the course of civil strife, he managed to seize the throne of Kiev.Once in power, Vladimir streamlined management of territories and uprooted on the land subordinated tribes any signs of local nobility.That's when it was replaced tribal division of Kievan Rus territorial.
on the union Vladimir lands inhabited by many ethnic groups and peoples.In such circumstances, the governor was hard to keep the territorial integrity of the state, even by force of arms.This led to the need for ideological justification Vladimir rights to manage all the tribes.Therefore, the prince decided to reform paganism, putting in Kiev, near the place that housed the Palace of the Grand Dukes, the most revered idols of Slavic gods.
Trying to reform paganism failed.Then Vladimir summoned the rulers of various tribal alliances, professing Islam, Judaism, Christianity, and so on. D. After listening to their suggestions about the new state religion, the prince went to the Byzantine Chersonese.After a successful campaign, Vladimir announced his intention to marry a Byzantine princess Anna, but because it was impossible, as he professed pagan prince was baptized.Returning to Kiev, the ruler of the city sent messengers to all the inhabitants of the order of the day to come to the Dnieper.January 19 988 people came to the river, where they were baptized Byzantine priests.In fact, Russia was baptized by force.
new faith did not immediately became nationwide.First adhered to Christianity, residents of large cities, and in the churches until the XII century.there are special places for adult baptism.
value of the proclamation of Christianity as the state religion
adoption of Christianity has had a tremendous impact on the further development of the state.First, it has led to the fact that the great Russian princes consolidated their power over the fragmented tribes and peoples.Second, the increased role of the state in the international arena.The adoption of Christianity helped to establish close ties with the Byzantine Empire, the Czech Republic, Poland, the German Empire, Bulgaria and Rome.It also contributed to the campaigns of the Grand Dukes of Russia is no longer used as the main method of implementation of the foreign policy plans.
Board of Yaroslav the Wise Yaroslav the Wise
united Kievan Rus' under his rule in 1036 after many years of civil strife the new ruler had to be approved again in these lands.He was able to return to the city of Cherven, based in the city of St. George Chudskoy ground and finally beat the Pechenegs in 1037-m.In honor of the victory over the alliance Jaroslav ordered to lay the greatest temple - St. Sophia Cathedral.
In addition, he was the first collection of laws of the state - "Truth Yaroslav".It should be noted that up to him rulers of ancient Russia (Great Prince Igor, Svyatoslav, Vladimir) asserted its power by force, and not of law.Jaroslav engaged in construction of churches (St. George's Monastery, St. Sophia Cathedral, Kiev-Pechersk Monastery) and supported the authority of the prince's power is still rather weak church organization.In 1051 he was appointed first Metropolitan of the Rus - Hilarion.The government, Grand Duke remained 37 years and died in 1054.
After the death of Yaroslav the Wise, the most important land in the hands of his eldest sons - Izyaslav, Svyatoslav and Vsevolod.Initially, the grand dukes ruled state quite smoothly.They have successfully fought against the Turkic-speaking tribes of Torquay, but in 1068 on the river Alta suffered a crushing defeat in the battle with Polovtsy.This led to the fact that Izyaslav was expelled from Kiev, and fled to the Polish King Boleslaw II.In 1069 he was with the help of the allied troops took the capital again.
In 1072 the Grand Dukes of Russia gathered at the Chamber in Vyshgorod, where it was approved by the famous set of Russian laws "Truth Yaroslav".After that begins the long period of internecine wars.In 1078 he occupied the throne of Kiev Vsevolod.After his death in 1093, he came to power Svyatopolk II of Kiev, and two sons, Vsevolod - Vladimir Monomakh and Rostislav - started to rule in Chernihiv and Pereyaslav.
Board Vladimir Monomakh
After the death of Svyatopolk in 1113 was invited to the throne of Kiev, Vladimir Monomakh.The main goal of its policies, he saw the centralization of state power and to strengthen the unity of Russia.In order to establish peaceful relations with different princes he used dynastic marriages.Precisely because of this, and far-sighted domestic policy, he managed to successfully control the vast territory of Russia for 12 years.In addition, dynastic marriages united Kievan state with Byzantium, Norway, England, Denmark, the German Empire, Sweden and Hungary.
Grand Prince Vladimir Monomakh equip the capital of Russia, in particular, was built bridge across the Dnieper.Ruler died in 1125, and then began a long period of decline and disintegration of the state.
Grand Dukes of ancient Russia in the period of disunity
What happened?During feudal fragmentation every 6-8 years to change the rulers of ancient Russia.Grand Dukes (Kiev, Chernigov, Novgorod, Pereyaslavl, Rostov-Suzdal, Smolensk) fought for the high altar in arms.The longest-ruled state Svyatoslav and Rurik, who belonged to the most influential old Olegoviches and Rostislavovich.
in Chernihiv-Seversky Principality of power was in the hands of the dynasty and O. Davidovich.Because these lands were exposed more than any expansion Polovtzy rulers managed to contain their conquest through the establishment of dynastic marriages.
Pereyaslavl principality, even during the period of disunity was entirely dependent on Kyiv.Zenith of these territories associated with the name of Vladimir Glebovich.
Strengthening the Moscow principality
After the decline of Kiev main role goes to the Moscow principality.Its rulers borrowed the title of which were grand dukes of Russia.
Strengthening the Moscow principality associated with the name of Daniel (the youngest son of Alexander Nevsky).He managed to subdue the city of Kolomna, and Pereyaslavl principality Mozhaisk.With the accession of the last important trade route and waterway p.Moscow was within the territory of Daniel.
reign of Ivan Kalita
In 1325 came to power, Prince Ivan Kalita.He made a trip to Tver and defeated her, thus removing his strong opponent.In 1328, he received from the Mongolian Khan's label on the Vladimir principality.During his reign Moscow firmly cemented its superiority in the North-Eastern Russia.In addition, at this time it formed a close alliance of power and the grand church, which played a significant role in the formation of a centralized state.Metropolitan Peter moved his residence from Vladimir to Moscow, which became an important religious center.
In relations with the Mongol khans Ivan Kalita pursued a policy of maneuvering and trouble paying tribute.Fundraising from the population was carried out with a significant rigidity that led to the accumulation in the hands of the ruler of considerable wealth.It was during the principality Kalita laid the foundation of power in Moscow.His son Simon has claimed the title of "Grand Prince of All Russia."
Association lands around Moscow
During the reign of Ivan Kalita Moscow managed to recover from a series of civil wars, and lay the foundations of an effective business and economic systems.It was supported by the construction of the power in the Kremlin in 1367, which was a military defensive fortress.
In the middle of the XIV century.in the struggle for supremacy in the Russian land included princes Suzdal-Nizhny Novgorod and Ryazan principality.But the main enemy of Moscow remained Tver.Opponents of the powerful principality often sought support from the Mongolian Khan and Lithuania.
unification of Russian lands around Moscow is connected with the name of Dmitry Donskoy, who laid siege to Tver and won recognition of its government.
Battle of Kulikovo
In the second half of the XIV century.Russian grand dukes direct all their efforts to fight the Mongol Khan Mamai.In the summer of 1380, he and his army came to the southern borders of Ryazan.In contrast to him, Dmitry Ivanovich put 120,000th squad which moved in the direction of the Don.
September 8, 1380 Russian troops occupied positions in the Kulikovo field, and on the same day, the decisive battle - one of the biggest battles in medieval history.
The defeat hastened the collapse of the Mongol Golden Horde and reinforced the value of the center of Moscow as the unification of Russian lands.