From the first days of stay in high school, students are faced with various difficulties.These difficulties are differentiated on the objective and subjective.The objective are those that are determined by the external environment and conditions of the institution to which the students can not directly influence, to the subjective - difficulties that are inherent in individually to each student, and that he can overcome himself, based on his value orientations, goals and life experiences.
all difficulties can be grouped into three categories: didactic, psycho-social, professional.Didactic difficulties associated with overcoming the novelty in the learning process, new requirements for students on tests and examinations, new methods and forms of organization of educational and scientific work.Mastering the curriculum requires high school students the ability to work independently, to think, to comprehend course material, to take new, absorb it and be able to apply in practice.For the characteristic frequency of the university students' knowledge control (as opposed to the school of continuity), are crucial regular tests and exams in all subjects of the curriculum.Practices and techniques intermediate knowledge test: seminars, practical and laboratory classes, modules, and individual interviews.Of particular importance in the period of adaptation have difficulties associated with the transition to the form of training of higher education.
In particular, the need for note-taking lectures, practical complexity and seminars, an increase in independent study, changes in the questionnaire and control system performance.The novelty of the situation didactic largely devalues acquired in school ways of mastering the material.Trying to compensate for this care does not always lead to success.And tested a lot of time until the student acquires new skills, adequate forms and methods of higher education.All this is happening at each student individually and gradually, in daily, persistent and systematic work.
socio-psychological difficulties associated with the occurrence of the individual in the student body: the conditions of life, surrounded by people, the norms of behavior in the collective mode of activity, style of interpersonal relations in the group, the course, the faculty, the novelty of the big city and the peculiarities of life in the new, completely changedfrom the generally accepted conditions, the need to self-management of the budget and overcoming the various financial difficulties, the need for self-management and time allocation.
All this greatly affects the nervous system, izmenyaetharakter mental processes of the young man.Psychological unpreparedness for forms of learning in higher education can contribute to the gradual accumulation of intellectual, mental fatigue, reduces attention, memory, thinking, will, without which it is impossible optimal state of successful learning.
Professional difficulties associated with the mastery of the chosen specialty: the ability to see the pedagogical orientation of the training process, awareness of the need to learn to work with people of different ages, to acquire organizational skills, combine training, research and community service.
studying the general and individual psychological indicators of trends in the process of adaptation, the researchers concluded that the formation of adaptive mechanisms freshmen takes place in several stages.For the initial phase is characterized by the activation of mental processes, when even after substantial training load indicators usually grow.It should be seen as a reaction of the organism to new conditions of existence.Each student's individual terms of adaptation, but mostly in the middle of the first semester this stage zakanchivaetsya.Sleduyuschy stage is characterized by formation of a new dynamic stereotype and development of mental processes at a new qualitative level.However, the adaptive mechanisms in this period is not very stable, cause significant fluctuations in mental processes, even students with high academic performance.This phase is usually completed in the middle of the second semester.
third stage can be considered as offensive sustainable adaptation period when the formation of adaptive mechanisms and the new dynamic stereotype is substantially complete.Research shows that the signs of successful adaptation of students in high school (the success of stabilization, reduction of fatigue, a high level of self-reliance, initiative, active participation in a research and community service, the level of self-education, etc.) are at the end of the second - the beginningthe third semester.
Investigating this problem, the scientists identify different groups of students according to their relation to the different activities, as well as for the way they have is a process of adaptation.Some students is characterized by well-developed abilities, inclinations and interests.The interest in any kind of activity they do not lead to one-sidedness, loss of interest in others.
These students learn well, skillfully combine teaching and research with the public.Professional interests they identify and cover a wide scope of future activities.Some students of different clear focus on the narrow teaching.
They believe the study of special subjects to study at a higher education institution.The work of these students is directed and subordinated to the mastery of a particular specialty.All interests are limited outside of professional tasks.They are active in the social, scientific research, have certain academic achievements.Some students have shown considerable interest in the scientific work.Try as much as possible to avoid other activities because we believe that it distracts them from their chosen path.If any of these students interested in other activities, he does so only because of sense of duty.
Based on studies of this problem, many teachers we can highlight the psychological and pedagogical conditions of positive adaptation first-year students to study in higher education:
- mandatory appointment of deans of different faculties professors, curators of student groups of freshmen, most tried to create for the students' conditions of psychologicalComfort in the group;
- in case of failure of teachers activity curators responsibilities for the facilitation of adaptation to assign to the vice-dean or head teachers;
- organization of systematic individual and individual and group interviews with first-year students on the problems of familiarization and adaptation to the conditions of life, the organization of the educational process and public life in the new educational institution (a clear reference to the norms and rules of behavior in the new school,with different forms of organization of educational process in the higher rapid establishment and different approaches to the system of evaluation of students' knowledge, etc.);
- to study the real needs of students related to education, leisure and new living conditions;
- promote the organization of various educational activities, in which to carry out the correction of behavior, in particular, to develop student self-confidence, ability to naturally lead among others.
Mastering the process of adaptation of the person, in our opinion, ensure the success of high school teachers in this field and will contribute to the development of their creativity and skill.
Knowledge of psychological and pedagogical analysis of the effectiveness of the education and adaptation, diagnosis of the social environment, individual, collective, social and legal protection, health allows teachers to work purposefully, depending on the state of education, the social environment in which there are freshmen.
Under the influx of purposeful work in an educational institution, as well as through active self majority of students at the end of the first semester mainly getting used to the new living conditions and educational work, achieving high performance in various activities.