The projection in psychology.

term "projection" is used in geometry, physics, psychology and other sciences, is derived from the Latin word projectio, which literally translates as "throwing forward."Specifically, they refer to in psychology is one of the defense mechanisms of the individual.

main methods of psychological protection of the person

Before turning to the disclosure, the projection will be out of place to give a general definition of psychological processes such as the protection mechanisms, as well as to find out what are the ways of protection.

concept of psychological defense born within psychoanalysis.It was introduced by the founder of the teachings of Sigmund Freud in 1894.According to him, the person to deal with a variety of painful and heavy emotions begins to use psychological defense mechanisms.They are in a difficult moment for the man to help maintain mental health and integrity of the individual by distorting reality.That is the primary function of these mechanisms - to protect against the negative effects of external and internal factors (ie, himself) personality.In psychology, it acts as a carrier of the individual principle, which have done their special inner peace.Therefore, protection mechanisms for each specific case are individual.However, scientists from multiple studies were able to organize them and identified several ways of psychological protection.They are attended by almost all the mental functions (memory, attention, perception, imagination, emotion, thought, and so on. D.), But in each case dominates only one of them.Depending on this, there are following methods of psychological defense:

  1. Denial.
  2. suppression.
  3. Displacement.
  4. Rationalization.
  5. reaction formation.
  6. substitution.
  7. irony.
  8. dream.
  9. Sublimation.
  10. Projection (psychology).
  11. identification.
  12. fantasy (the dream).
  13. transfer.
  14. Introjection.
  15. depersonalization and others.

Each of these mechanisms is a specially formulated program of struggle with anxiety and stress.They help a person to resolve, not only external but also internal conflicts.For example, thanks to the projection of a person may unconsciously transfer the responsibility and the blame for some of their shameful (his understanding of) the slope on the other person, or to ascribe his qualities or feelings of others.

forms of psychological defense

in science are four basic forms of psychological defense, namely: active, "surrender" overprotection and "rationalization".

active form of protection

It can happen by searching "target" - someone or something on whom you can knead your bad mood or accumulated aggression, and by ekstrapunitivnosti in which there is a tendency to blame their mistakes or failures of one-What else, but not themselves.To this form of protection is, and "righteous anger" when a person collapses with accusations for someone to justify those negative feelings that arise from it, such as envy.Assertiveness by belittling the dignity of another human being is the most negative form of response mechanism of psychological defense.And, too, belongs to this category.In addition, to the active form of protection include the devaluation of the object of concern, that is the attribution of the negative characteristics of the individual, what it actually may not possess.

Psychological protection by capitulation

When people appreciating their achievements in life, a sense of inner dissatisfaction, he resorted to a form of protection as a capitulation.It may be expressed or gerontolizmom puerilism.For example, he can console themselves with the fact that he is still to come, or, conversely, to blame their failures age, they say, if I were young, things would be different.By the way, this also applies intropunitivnost type (opposed ekstrapunitivnosti), where the identity of blaming themselves.By this form of recourse is mainly people with an inferiority complex.


Under the influence of the deep feelings of stress or the person ceases to perceive the whole unpleasant information for themselves and hear only good things.This psychological technique is called selection information to him something similar to the mechanism of denial or avoidance, when the individual does not want to believe what had happened and denies it.

so-called "Protect facade" also refers to the mechanism of "overprotection" when quiet man suddenly begins to behave unusually brazen and it plunges others into shock.The devaluation of the threats, as well as personalization of anxiety are also tricks overprotection.And if in the first case, a man pushes away the thought of threat hanging over him because of his committing certain actions (eg, smoking - as a consequence of the threat of lung cancer), in the second case, it is in their anxiety that often are groundless,He is looking for culprits outside.By sverhzaschite also includes reinsurance (never fly on airplanes, eat healthy food, and so on. D.), Fixation, repression, sverhkonservatizm, difleksiya (the same as the care itself), disconnection from reality, depersonalization (when the person todisconnect from the main problem starts to do something small, and so on. d.) "cut the Gordian knot" (unconscious risk), symbolic or ritual acts (belief in omens), sublimation (the revaluation of values ​​in life), and so on. d.

way, people with high levels of psychological defense resorted to entirely different methods, such as optimism, clarity of thought, analysis, real look at things, the attitude to himself with humor, and so on. d. However, so treat problemsIt can only be a real person.In psychology, despite the fact that the word "person" is perceived by any creature that is endowed with consciousness, speech, creativity and so on. E., However in daily life speaking about the personality, meant those people who have the strength of will and characterare extraordinary and powerful people.

protection through rationalization

These primarily include the installation of self-defense, or as it is called in psychology "himself a lawyer."Probably everyone has seen the movie "The most charming and attractive."In it the main character uses this form of psychological defense.The projection, distortion, substitution effect, introjection, identification with socially significant person, the dissolution of responsibility and so on. D. Also apply to the protection through rationalization.Sometimes there is a distortion of reality in the form of displacement in time.When the person everything that took place a few years ago, it seems almost prehistoric.Later in the article we will try to explain the essence of one of the mechanisms of psychological defense - projection.As noted above, the protection in this case through rationalization.

What is projection?

projection in psychology is a way of transferring their own feelings and secret desires to the other animate or inanimate object.On the first, it seems, everything is clear, as for inanimate objects, this occurs when a man is endowed with objects or phenomena of nature, their feelings, such as anxiety Sea, a hostile sky, weeping willow and so on. D. In the simplestunderstanding person, at times experiencing outbreaks of violence, and to see other people cruelty liar thinks that all his fooling around.This is because people do not accept in themselves these qualities can not really assess yourself as if from outside, but the constant conflict with itself leads to the fact that he unconsciously resorts to the projection, which as introjection - a psychological protection.Freud believed that they are most often found in people with paronoidnym or hysteroid disorders.In this context, this term is understood the mechanism of subjective perception, which can be both positive and negative.

negative and positive sides of the projection

When people while gnawing sense of guilt, or they are experiencing anxiety and fear, then they begin to operate in the minds of those or other protective mechanisms.For example, the projection.In psychology, it is a way of transferring their own feelings and secret desires to another object.For example, a person who is experiencing a secret desire to change his wife, but did not accept, and even ashamed of it, she begins to design these desires at his wife.As a result, he starts to believe that he was not, and the wife wants to change it.As a result, he now and then rolls her jealousy, accuses her of all mortal sins, though it had no reason to.Another example is the story of an aging beauty who, for fear of old age, begins to see their peers in the signs of aging and give it to them in person.In other words, the projection in psychology is the mechanism of subjective perception, which can be both positive and negative.The above examples show the negative side of the mechanism.

On the other hand, the projection in psychology can have a positive side.For example, a positive projection is empathy, which can increase the level of mutual understanding between people.Empathy someone in psychological science is called empathy.It is based on all of the same mechanism of projection, when a man, sharing the other, projects on his feelings.As a result, it is able to better understand the state of the "other."


main problems psychology of personality to which it relates and the problem of mental health are closely linked with the mechanisms of psychological protection to which an individual uses (unconsciously) to preserve the integrity of their mental health.