GLONASS system is the largest navigation system that allows you to track the location of various objects.The project, launched in 1982, is still actively developed and improved.Moreover, work is being done as the above technical support GLONASS, and the infrastructure that allows to use the system more and more people.So, if the first years of the complex navigation through satellites used primarily in solving military tasks, today GLONASS - a technological tool positioning, which has become a must in the life of millions of civil users.
global satellite navigation system
Due to the technological complexity of the implementation of projects of global satellite positioning today fully comply with this name can be only two systems - GLONASS and GPS.The first is Russia, and the second - the result of American developers.From a technical point of view, GLONASS - a set of specialized hardware equipment located and in orbit and on the ground.
to communicate with satellites using special sensors and receivers read the signals and form the basis of their location data.To calculate the time parameters are special atomic clocks.They serve to determine the position of the object based on broadcast radio waves and processing.Reduction of errors allows to provide a reliable calculation of the position data.
satellite navigation functions
The range of tasks of global satellite navigation systems include determining the exact location of surface facilities.In addition to geography, global navigation satellite systems make it possible to take into account the time path to follow, speed and other parameters.Realizing these objectives through satellites at different points on the earth's surface.
Application of global navigation not only used in the transport sector.Satellites help in search and rescue operations, the implementation of geodetic and construction work as well as they can not do without coordination and service stations and other space vehicles.Military branches and is left without the support of GPS.GLONASS navigator for such purposes provides a secure signal intended specifically for equipment authorized the Ministry of Defence.
full operation of the system began only in 2010, while trying to enter the complex in the active work undertaken since 1995. In many ways, the problems were related to the low durability of satellites used.
Currently GLONASS - a 24 satellites that operate in different parts of the orbit.In general navigation infrastructure can be represented by three components: a spacecraft control complex (provides control group orbit), as well as navigation hardware members.
24 satellites, each of which has a constant height, divided into several categories.In each hemisphere accounted for 12 satellites.Through satellite orbits above the ground grid is formed, due to the signals which are determined by the exact coordinates.Additionally, GLONASS satellite has several backup objects.They are also each in its own orbit, and not idle.The range of their tasks include expanding the coverage of a particular region and the replacement of breaking down satellites.
American counterpart GLONASS - a system of GPS, which began its work in 1980, but only since 2000, positioning accuracy made possible its widespread among consumers.To date, gps satellites guarantee the accuracy of 2-3 m. The delay in the development of navigation for a long time was due to the limitations of positioning the artificial nature.Nevertheless, their removal with the maximum precision allowed to determine the coordinates.Even if the synchronization is achieved with miniature receivers result corresponding GLONASS.
Differences between GLONASS and GPS
between the navigation system allocates some differences.In particular, there is a difference in the character of the movement and placement of satellites in orbit.Together they move GLONASS in three planes (eight satellites in each), and the GPS system provides six work planes (around four per plane).Thus, the Russian system provides a wider coverage of land area, which is reflected in higher accuracy.However, in practice the term "life" domestic satellite does not allow the full potential of the GLONASS system.GPS, in turn, maintains high accuracy due to an excessive amount of satellites.However Russian complex regularly introducing new satellites as for the intended use or as a backup support.
also use different methods of encoding the signal - Americans use code CDMA, as in the GLONASS - FDMA.When calculating data receivers for positioning the Russian satellite system provides a more complex model.As a result, it is necessary to use the GLONASS high energy consumption, which is reflected in the size of the device.
What allows the possibility of GLONASS?
Among the basic objectives of the system - the coordinates of the object, capable of interacting with the GLONASS satellites.GPS in this sense performs similar tasks.In particular, the computed motion parameters of land, sea and air targets.In just a few seconds of the vehicle, ensure compliance with the navigator can calculate the characteristics of its own motion.
The use of global navigation has become mandatory for certain categories of transport.If in the 2000s the spread of satellite positioning relates to the control of certain strategic assets, today the receivers are supplied with naval and air ships, public transport and so on. D. In the near future it is possible and mandatory maintenance of GLONASS navigators of all private cars.
What devices work with GLONASS
system can provide continuous global coverage of all categories of consumers, without exception, regardless of the climate, the spatial and temporal conditions.As well as services of GPS, GLONASS navigation free of charge, anywhere in the world.
Among the devices that are able to receive satellite signals, appear not only on-board navigational tools and GPS-receivers, but also cell phones.Data on the location, direction and speed of movement are sent to a special server for networks of GSM-operators.The use of satellite navigation makes it a special program GLONASS and various applications which process cards.
Territorial expansion of satellite navigation led to merging the two systems from a consumer perspective.In practice, the apparatus often complemented GLONASS GPS and vice versa, which improves the accuracy of positioning and timing.Technically, this is realized by means of two sensors integrated into a single browser.On the basis of this idea and produced an integrated receiver, running concurrently with systems GLONASS, GPS and related equipment.
Besides increasing the accuracy of determination of geographic coordinates of this symbiosis allows location tracking when satellites are one of the engines caught.The minimum number of orbital objects, "visibility" which is required to operate the navigator, is three units.So if, for example, the GLONASS program becomes unavailable, it will come to the aid of satellites gps.
other satellite navigation systems
development of projects similar in scope to the GLONASS and GPS, is engaged in the European Union, as well as India and China.The European Space Agency plans to implement a system Galileo, which consists of 30 satellites that will ensure unsurpassed accuracy.India plans to launch the system IRNSS, operating through seven satellites.Navigation system is focused on the domestic use.Compass system from Chinese developers should consist of two segments.The first will consist of 5 satellites and the second - 30. Accordingly, the project includes two formats of service.