Geology - the science of the earth.It represents a whole range of scientific disciplines and industrial sectors related to the study of the earth's crust and its deeper areas.Tasks geology mainly aimed at knowledge of the laws of formation and distribution of mineral deposits (mineral deposit).Most of the specific issues addressed in modern geology, refers to a depth of about 10-15 km, which is due to the geological deep cut in the folding areas of the ancient and the modern level of technical capacity and production of mineral exploration.
Engineering Geology is a science and technology branch of geology that studies the characteristics and patterns of interaction between the geological environment with engineering structures.The object of engineering geology are the upper layers and horizons of the crust, the geological conditions of their formation and occurrence, morphological, strength and dynamic characteristics in connection with the engineering-economic activity of the person.
Apart from highly specialized tasks, engineering geology includes the study of the geological constitution, composition and properties of soil, hydrogeological conditions, destructive geological processes and a number of other issues.Therefore, the basis of engineering geology include the need for certain broad knowledge in a number of related geological disciplines, including general geology, mineralogy, geomorphology, hydrogeology, petrography, tectonics, geophysics and others.
Goals and Objectives
Engineering and geological surveys aim toimplementation of an integrated and comprehensive assessment of geological factors caused by human activity in the construction and the economic sphere, in relation to the natural geological processes.
main tasks of engineering geology, including the study of geological and tectonic, geomorphological, seismic and technogenic factors, concentrating on the development of engineering-geological study, which necessarily precedes the construction of the status of civil engineering projects.This civil and industrial buildings and structures, roads, railways, dams, bridges, airports, subways, underground workings, underground utilities, and many other objects.
Thus, engineering geology designed to provide designers, builders and maintenance service business facilities all the data necessary for the design and construction, as well as to carry out activities related to their operation.
Based on the results of engineering-geological work up an opinion on the fundamental possibility of building structures and buildings and determine the most favorable sites for their placement.The report should include recommendations on the preferred method of manufacture of works, proposals for structures in terms of their maximum reliability and preventive measures to combat the possible negative geological processes that may threaten the safety of a building or structure.
Main sections of engineering geology
As part of the science of geology, engineering geology, in turn, includes a number of independent disciplines of which are considered major engineering geodynamics, Soil and regional engineering geology.
Soil, as the name implies, it is a scientific branch of geology that is responsible for the structure, composition and properties of soil, the laws of their formation and accumulation, as well as the peculiarities of spatial and temporal variability caused by engineering and construction and economic activities of people.
of engineering geodynamics is today a wide range of geological processes that have a significant impact on the conditions of construction and operation of commercial facilities of all sizes.By the processes of this kind include earthquakes, landslides of different origin, dips, subsidence, cracks and others. Along with the studies and forecasts, they all make it necessary to develop protective and preventive measures, which also refers to the problems of engineering geodynamics.
regional engineering geology, as well as other geological engineering, studies the characteristics and patterns of the uppermost layers of the Earth's crust, making up the so-called lithosphere, due to the current and planned engineering and business and civil engineering activity of man.But the subject of regional geology, by definition, geological factors on a regional scale.
Physical and mechanical properties of rocks and soils
to perform design and construction study of physical and mechanical properties of rocks and soils is of paramount importance because of the settlement of the strength, reliability and durability of the base object of construction depends a lot of critical decisions related to the choice of designconstruction, size, type, and the definition of the volume of construction and related works.In this regard, the physical and mechanical properties of rocks and soils necessarily analyzed at all stages of engineering and geological surveys.
By the physical and mechanical properties of rocks and soils are the following parameters: grain size distribution, plasticity, particle density, moisture content, bulk density, shear strength, resistance to uniaxial compression, the angle of repose, petrographic composition, subsidence, swelling andshrinkage, elastic modulus, resistance to soil deformation modulus, suffusion leaching, Poisson's ratio, salt content, permeability coefficient, water absorption, water saturation, and a number of additional parameters.
Assessment of geotechnical properties of rocks and soils invariably accompanies the study material and chemical composition, as well as structural and textural features.
composition and staging of geotechnical studies
Geotechnical surveys consistently include reconnaissance work, engineering and geological survey, geological exploration, detalizatsionnye work during construction and final surveys for its completion.
Reconnaissance is a comprehensive assessment of geological and geophysical exploration to determine the feasibility of further, more detailed work.If there where planned geological engineering, geology area has been well studied, the work can begin immediately with the engineering of the Geological Survey.
Shooting is performed to study geomorphological and hydrogeological features, geotechnical properties of rocks and soils, evidence of active geological processes and the overall assessment of engineering-geological conditions in the area of planned construction work.
As a result of exploration work prepared design estimates and working documentation.
Content production geotechnical studies
typical complex geological engineering surveys usually involves the following activities:
- preliminary laboratory processing of collected materials;
- study of aerial photographs;
- route studies;
- geophysical works;
- evaluation activities, including the drilling of wells;
- rocks and soil testing in the field;
- hydrogeological monitoring;
- stationary study;
- laboratory work;
- diagnostics of construction of buildings and structures;
- complete laboratory processing of collected materials;
- writing of the final report with the presentation of graphic materials, recommendations and opinions.
Final results of geological engineering survey
Summarizing the presentation, it may be appropriate to list specific and clear results of geotechnical studies.
So on set of engineering and geological work conducted and provided estimates of the following parameters:
- stability rock deformation base construction, which leads to a "bulging" out of the basement;
- extent and timing of the compression of rocks and soils at the base of buildings and structures;
- stability of rocks and soil on the slopes of quarries, construction pits, road ditches, embankments, ditches, canals, and other man-made depressions;
- stability of hydraulic structures (eg, dams) to shear deformation under the pressure of water reservoirs;
- forecast the behavior of the coast after the construction of reservoirs;
- stability of the bases of buildings and structures at the rise of groundwater;
- stability and economic engineering constructions erected on permafrost in seismic risk areas, in the areas of karst cavities, mudslides, landslides and other natural disasters.
Geotechnical production work performed in accordance with the technical requirements set out in the list of (arch) the rules of production research to justify the project preparatory activities before the start of construction, as well as the current research, carried out during the construction andoperation of facilities until their elimination.
award list of regulatory guidelines for the production of engineering and geological survey work includes a number of building codes (SNIP), governing the execution of works in the manner prescribed by state regulations and legislation.