Demographic characteristics.

word "demography" was formed from the words "demos" and "Count".In Greek it means "the people" and "write", respectively.A literal interpretation of this phrase - "Description of the population," or "the description of people."But science Demography throughout its history has never confined to the description.The subject of the study it has always been deeper and wider.

story of Science, which is the subject of the study population demographics, a specific date for the base.Its foundation was laid in January 1662 was then in London, was published a book written by an English captain and merchant, a self-taught scientist John Graunt.During the period when the author worked on his product, there were frequent outbreaks of plague and other infectious diseases.Bulletins on the death of a weekly published in London, and this information had practical value, because readers may at first signs of threats to his life to leave the dangerous city.

The mournful bulletins Graunt saw benefit to science.He studied all the statements on births and deaths, published in London in eighty years.This Graunt drew attention to a number of laws.In particular, he noted that the number of boys born than girls, and this difference is constant at 7.7%.The scientist drew attention to the excess of deaths over births, concluding that the number of people in London increased only due to the relocation of people from the provinces.A definite pattern was found in the marriage relationship: for each union had an average of four births.By the number of births and deaths scientist could determine the number of residents, and age of the dead - the age structure of the population.

The conclusions were very important, because at the time of the census have not been done.In addition, population statistics, except for the church, no one was conducted.

small book, the text of which was located on the ninety pages, has become the source of not only demography but also sociology and statistics.

further development

Formation demography as a science in later centuries took place in both directions.On the one hand there has been a narrowing of the object of its study.In contrast, the object of demography influenced a growing number of diverse factors.However, it became evident that this science covers a very wide area, which is the whole social life.To cope with such a task it becomes a virtue.That is why the subject matter of demography, the gradual exclusion of the issues of the economy, social structure, education and upbringing, morality, mobility and health, and so on.These issues have to explore other sciences, such as sociology, pedagogy, ethnology, political economy, medicine and so on. D.

By the mid-sixties of the last century, many experts began to limit the problem of demography study of natural population movements.And the movement is understood here is not physical, but in a general way.And it means a change.


Demographics population can be of two kinds.One of them - the natural and the other is mechanical, or migration.The second type of population change is the movement of people in the territory.Vital - a permanent change in the structure and population.It occurs as a result of deaths, births, marriages and divorces.By Vital also includes a change in the gender and age structure of inhabitants, which has a direct impact on all demographic processes.

From this we can make a definite conclusion: the demographics of the world shows that the population is on the move and constantly changing.People are born and die, marry and divorce, change their place of residence, work, profession and so on.. As a result of these processes is constantly changing structure and population.

social character of demography

continuous movement of population renewal in mathematical terms can have both "plus" and "minus".At the same time it comes under the influence of the laws of social development, it is one of the components of social life, so has the social character.Demographic region - is the result of human activity.Life expectancy, the birth in a family of larger or smaller number of children, celibacy or marriage - everything related to social factors.They are exposed to public law and are part of the functioning of the whole social organism.

In this case the main elements that make up the social fabric of society are social communities and groups.They are bringing people together, generating synergies.At the same time, all their work is aimed at meeting the needs of members of this social group.

Subject matter

goal pursued by any science, the disclosure laws of a particular area, it is simply impossible without the establishment of the existing laws.

concept of demography may be disclosed as follows: it is a science, the subject of which are patterns in the processes of natural reproduction.This notion of the population here stands for a particular way.This is not just a collection of people.This is their big strength, which has a rich structure needed for continuous renewal.The main quality that defines the population, is its ability to reproduce itself.Thus, this concept does not include aggregate such as labor groups, tenants of houses, and so on. D.

Learning objectives

in addition to knowledge of the laws of any science there are problems of a practical nature.There are those and demographics.Their list includes the following:

  • study of a variety of factors and trends of demographic processes;
  • development of measures and projections of demographic policy.

Difficult task is to identify the trends that exist in the natural movement of the population.And here comes to the aid statistics.Demographics selects appropriate in each case evaluates their performance and reliability.

no less importance is given to the study of the various factors of population movements.This usually refers to the causes of the processes and phenomena.

Based on the analysis of the results developed by demographers projections concerning future changes in the structure and population.Their conclusions are based planning of the national economy.These forecasts are important in the allocation of labor resources, training, housing development, and so on. D.

Based on the knowledge of the real trends of processes of population movement, is the detection of social and demographic policy.The development of such programs is complex, so the list of required actions are prepared not only to demographers.This involved sociologists and lawyers, doctors and psychologists, specialists in the field of advertising, and so on. D.

Demographic characteristics

Population by any significant difference, and understand by its structure.This can be taken any characteristic.The main thing that a researcher is of interest.These characteristics are the demographic characteristics.

distinguish different groups

What demographic characteristics?The distribution of population by age and sex structure, ethnicity and so on. D. One nation certainly different from the other specific features.This is a demographic characteristic.Examples of this are numerous.As an example we can take the demographic characteristics of the Scots and the Britons.

Sexual structure

whole population is allocated to women and men.This is the demographic characteristics of sexual structure.On the main characteristics of this classification is influenced by three factors.The first of these is a constant and is determined by the biological basis of the sex ratio of newborn infants.The second factor are sex differences dead people.Demographic characteristics of sexual structure depends on the difference in the intensity of the migration of men and women.

For boys born on average slightly more than girls.The ratio among newborns stable.One hundred girls, it is one hundred and five hundred and six boys.However, scientists, physiologists are of the opinion that an infant male body less vitality.It is therefore initially somewhat larger boys dies.Next mortality rates have modified the sexes.For example, in developed countries men die more because of occupational diseases, injuries, and commitment to the use of alcohol and smoking.In developing countries, the picture is reversed.Here, higher than female mortality.This is due to the hard work and frequent births, low social status and lack of power.

age structure of the population distribution is made, and the period from birth to a certain point in his life.What are the demographic characteristics of the age structure?The distribution of people living on their age and infants by months, weeks, days and hours.

age structure of society has a significant impact on the demographic processes and the value of existing indicators in this area.So, if the population is high percentage of young people, it is possible to predict the increase in marriage and fertility while reducing the mortality.

age structure affects not only demographic, but also in all social processes.With the duration of the period of his life is connected emotionality, psychology, and also to a certain extent and the mind.Revolutions and rebellions are more likely in countries with a young age structure.Aging society, where there is a high proportion of elderly people, by contrast, are subject to stagnation and dogmatism.

marriage structure

demographic characteristics of the population and is determined by the shape of the relationship between man and woman.Knowledge of the structure of society marriage is important in studies of fertility and mortality.At the same demographics are interested not only legal form of marriage.Marital relationship, regardless of their legal form, are also investigated by scientists.

in marriage, divorce, widowhood or marital status of people move from one state to another.Across the whole of society, these cases are the components of the process.Together, they represent the reproduction of the marriage structure.

Knowledge of these processes are important to determine the cause of the collapse and the formation of families, changes in the trends in fertility and mortality.

create a new scientific discipline

social demography was formed at the intersection of demography and sociology.This is a new scientific discipline.It examines the mutual influence of social and demographic processes.Research vital in this discipline is made on the micro level.Social demographics studies the relationships and personality.Also this discipline considers the structure of the family.

subject of research on which social demography focuses serve demographic attitudes and behavior, as well as social norms.

social orientation demography

Any community of people formed on the basis of certain characteristics.Science studies the demography of the population by sex, age and so on.. However itself has a neutral demographic characteristics.Social status, he gets only when considering the overall socio-historical context.

What is the demographic characteristic in such a case?For example, to be a woman or a man does not mean merely to have physiological characteristics inherent to the floor.This concept includes the assimilation of social roles, as well as the corresponding stereotype of behavior, tastes, interests, character traits, and so on. D. Socio-demographic characteristics are factors of femininity or masculinity of man.This has its pros and cons.On the one hand, the demographic characteristics of social groups is an essential condition for the happiness and peace of mind.However, the coin has another side.Perceived human demographic characteristics of social groups can become an obstacle to the formation of talented creative personality.It will hamper the manifestation of dissent, banning retreat from the stereotypes of thinking and behavior, as well as the accepted rules.

Sections and industry demographics

Any science has many thematic parts.It is no exception and Demography.It consists of various sections that allow to study specific issues.

So, the task of theoretical demography is the development of the general theory of population.Moreover, all the factors are analyzed on the basis of ongoing empirical research and scientific hypotheses put forward to show the quantitative links between events and phenomena in the natural movement of the population.

next section of science - history of demography.This discipline examines the evolution of knowledge in the field of population movement.

study of the socio-demographic composition of the population is engaged in demographic statistics.This sub-sector discipline interested in studying the composition of the population.The object of study is the national demographic statistics and education, qualification and position, profession, as well as the grouping of the population by income sources, and so on. D. This discipline examines the migration flows and economic burden to families.

information on family structures collects statistics households.She pays attention to quality of food and obespechennnosti durable goods, income and living standards.In its area of ​​focus is on data on the number of married couples, they have children and so on. D.

deploy information about the dynamics of the population and the reproduction of the narrative or descriptive demography.

no secret that between the reproduction of the population and the level of development of the country there is a certain relationship.It is engaged in the study of economic demography.This discipline analyzes the influence of demographic processes in the proportions and structure of economic growth.

Economic Demography consists of three directions (section).They are the following: growth of the economy and the quality of the population, as well as the structures of the economy and social demographic.

interdisciplinary scientific direction is and ethnic demographics.It explores the structure of the migration of ethnic groups and the impact of ethnic and religious systems behavior at the level of reproduction.

There demography and political.The scope of her research is the interaction of socio-political and demographic processes.The object of study of this discipline are the political risks of the demographic policy pursued by the state.

In the early seventies of the last century there was another branch of scientific disciplines.There was a medical demography, which was to study the health status of the population, the impact of environmental and social conditions on mortality.Thus the main objective of the industry was to analyze the causes of loss of residents, as well as development on the basis of the data obtained the most favorable conditions for the country's demographic processes.