Influence of mass culture, especially cinema, large and undeniable.Take, for example, suspended animation.What is it, people imagine little, but everyone knows about it, who are older than three - five years, thanks to films like "Alien" or "Avatar".However tokovanii term there are some very common misconceptions.Most say that the suspended animation - a dream-like death.But such a description fits most of lethargy, which is a painful condition, concomitant severe exhaustion, hysteria and strong sudden unrest.A state of suspended animation - protective planned nature of the reaction, which helps to go through the regular unfavorable circumstances.
first discovered and described the phenomenon Leeuwenhoek, and it happened two and a half centuries ago.In a somewhat random experiment he placed in the water dry sand.After some time, under a microscope to see the small organisms in the active state.After drying, they were again visually ceased to exist.These small animals called rotifers Leeuwenhoek - and so was first described hibernation.What is this phenomenon, said Wilhelm Preyer.He called it, and it happened much later, in the late 19th century (or more precisely, in 1873).Translations of the term is found in two variants.According to the first "ana" - "no" and "BIOS" - "life."The second part, by the way, is translated always the same.But the first is sometimes treated as a "new".Accordingly, in the first case we have "no life", "apparent death", in the second - "revival", "return to life".
Cryostasis: it is from the point of view of biology
all processes inherent in this state flows into the body, slowed down so much that there are no external signs of life.This is the principle of suspended animation.Status is shown at the deterioration of environmental conditions.The most pronounced anabiosis bacteria, protozoa, which are capable of forming a cyst, and fungi.In the distribution area of the first place is desert creating a responsive way to the high temperature.Yet it should be noted, speaking of suspended animation, it is a temporary phenomenon, taking place on their own as soon as conditions become more favorable around.No additional force shall be applied for the "revival" is not necessary.
Types of suspended animation
In terms of frequency and occurrence of suspended animation to share the forced and seasonal.The first comes in the ability to his body when suddenly the surrounding conditions change so that cast doubt on its existence.Examples are all the same experiences Leeuwenhoek.
season is different at regular intervals;beings fall into his poor season for them and are preparing for it in advance.Or he attaches to a particular stage of development.A typical example - cysts, seeds, spores, mosquito larvae.
You can also select a full (true or real) and a partial hibernation.The first is extremely rare in nature - too many conditions and factors should coincide.The entire biochemistry in "sleep" the body stops, but the resilience of life remains.Part of the conservation of suspended animation is different biochemical processes in action.The list of those who use it, is much more extensive.
Who is able to anabiosis
The list is not so great, especially if we bear in mind the true suspended animation:
- bacteria form spores;
- mushrooms - not the ones that are used in food and microscopic;
- invertebrates and protozoa - from cnidarians (certain types) to a few insects;
- of vertebrates - bats, some amphibians (Siberian salamander and Dali - fish, which is found in Chukotka and Alaska);
- plants - spores and seeds, is notable in this regard anastatica, which fall into suspended animation vegetative organs.
Without dehydration hibernation impossible.However, not every dehydration leads to it: in suspended animation must maintain the structure of the protein that, for most living organisms available.If the dehydration of the protein is broken, the recovery of the whole organism impossible - he dies.
scientific disputes among scholars there is no consensus as to what exactly ways to deal with severe natural conditions can be attributed to the concept of "suspended animation."What does this term mean?In order that it can be attributed to hibernation, not everyone agrees.But since most of the processes are inhibited: the animal does not need food, not defecating, does not suffer from cold and does not feel thirsty, still breathing, heart beating, and certain biochemical reactions in the body do not stop, many researchers still are inclined to think that sleep can beconsidered a variant of incomplete, partial hibernation.
But the suspension of vital processes in cold-blooded anabiosis confidently refers to all scientists.The reason is, if only the fact that before entering into this state the body of the same frogs begin production of a kind of antifreeze that are needed to prevent the crystallization of the water inside the cells, which invariably leads to rupture cell membranes and death of the animal.Frog stops the heart, the kidneys do not work, there is no breathing.A protein - the most vulnerable component of the body - is transformed into a hydrogel, similar in appearance to the dry gelatin.In suspended animation frog looks no different from the dead.However, with the warming of the heart begins to beat, and all functions are restored.
prospects for human
If ever it will be possible suspended animation human medicine immediately go to the next level.It will be possible to preserve the integrity of the body of the victim to be able to cure him.It will be available interstellar travel (remember again cosmic fiction movies).However, in the near future, expect the break to occur.