What track and field - the history, the major disciplines

What athletics?For this kind of sport is a whole mass of individual competition disciplines.Currently, athletics is one of the most popular, popular sports.

history of athletics

reckons it is from the time of ancient Greece.Traditional Olympic Games in ancient times consisted solely of athletic disciplines.According to the extant historical records, the first Olympic Games were held on the basis of competitions in running for short distances.Later, the program of such events several varieties appearance run in several stages, mainly back and forth.After that there was a discipline called dolihodromos, which was a pretty long endurance races.

new round of the history of the falls on the 12th century, when the sport has gained popularity among the inhabitants of the British Isles.It was here the first time began to carry out the first major athletics competitions, which included races at some distance, high jump and long, throwing sports equipment.It is these competitions have given a significant impetus to the development of modern sports.

Athletics as close in character to date, began to carry out, since the second half of the 19th century, when the Greeks, the first in attempts to revive the old, long-forgotten traditions.Later, these championships have been held in very many countries.

main athletic disciplines

What athletics?The basis of this sport make racing disciplines: sprint, running on the middle and long distance races, races barrier.A separate view, deserves special attention, advocates walking, where the emphasis, compared to running, is to comply with the proper technique of movement.

Currently athletics competitions in running and race walking held not only in sports arenas, but also often go beyond the stadiums.

Cross discipline - not only based on what a great sport and physical culture.Athletics unites a wide range of technical disciplines:

  • pole vault, vertical jumping over obstacles;
  • horizontal jumping;
  • discus, hammer, javelin, shot put.

All these athletic disciplines form the structure of the mandatory program of the Olympic competitions among men since 1908.Many engineering disciplines are included in the competition program of track and field decathlon.


To understand what is athletics, just look at the competition in cross-country disciplines, which occupy the major part of competitive athletics program.At present, there are several types of cross-country release programs:

  1. Smooth sprint - race at a distance of 50 to 400 m, which underlie major international competitions.Home races held on the command of the judge: "Ready," - and then a shot rings out from the flare gun.In premature start of one of the athletes is stopped running, and the offender is scored a false start rules and cautioned.Repeated mistakes at the start will result in disqualification.The same rules apply to other racing disciplines.
  2. Barrier sprints - the main difference from Sprint is the need to overcome obstacles.Moving athletes occurs over separate paths, each of which is located a certain number of barriers depending on the length of the distance.
  3. race at medium and long distances - are among the most dynamic and exciting disciplines in athletics.Spectacular races is not only athletes need to select the right strategy, but also a high probability of occurrence of a mass of unexpected moments.


At the time, the International Federation of Athletics sports walking included in the list of Olympic disciplines.To win in the competition in race walking requires not only a demonstration of the most rapid results, but also full compliance with art.So, the guard is forbidden to resort to jogging or stop lose contact with the ground, that is, to move to the stage of the flight of the body above the ground.Assuming the technical shortcomings in the race walking provides fines and temporary suspension.

Throwing sports equipment

What athletics, what else is included in this concept?In competitive athletics program, along with running and jumping disciplines included throwing all kinds of shells: the kernel, hammer, disc, and sometimes tennis balls and dummy grenades.The last two subjects are the nature of the preparatory, support and training are applied in order.

all throwing disciplines allow preliminary inertial acceleration of sports equipment, which allows to increase the airspeed during the liberation of contact with the hands of the thrower departure.


separate, one of the most interesting for the viewer disciplines in athletics is considered to be around.Classic men's decathlon includes races over short and medium distances, running hurdles, long jump and height, throwing sports equipment.

As for the women's heptathlon, it is the discipline of competition on the run for 100, 200, 800 meters, high jump and long, shot put and javelin.

Forming results and determine the winner in the men's and women's all-around in is done by counting the total number of points, which are awarded for showing some results in individual disciplines.