In the process of learning, communication or work frequent foreign words, with some have understandable Russian synonyms, while others do not.For example, the dilemma - what is this?Understand help article.
This beautiful and not too friendly word has as many as two values.One is a matter of logic or philosophy, and the other - to the psychology or sociology.Consider both definitions:
- combination of two opposite in the sense of judgment, but without the ability to formulate the third.
- situation in which we have to choose from two decisions, because they are opposite in meaning and give rise to the same scale of difficulty.
This second meaning is most often implicit in the book and journalistic speech.Hence the expression "insoluble dilemma", "dangerous dilemma," etc... In a sense, it is consonant with the famous phrase "no middle ground."Such situations are not uncommon in everyday life.The simplest example: a person must decide to stay for a well-paid job, which is a burden to him, or change it to a more pleasant, but bears a much smaller income.
So the dilemma - what is this?What often happens in life.Furthermore, there are various types of this phenomenon.
For example, in a strictly scientific definition of different constructive and destructive option.More about them can be found in the textbook logic.And the well-known sense of isolated social dilemmas, including: ethical, moral, ecological, as well as the situation with the intriguing title "prisoner's dilemma" "dilemma Secretary" and "Samaritan's dilemma."Let us dwell on some of these species.
Ethics Ethics - a branch of philosophy that studies the morality (taken in this society the rules of conduct) and morality (can be a synonym for morality or life means the right to a particular individual).The terms of ethical questions: good and evil, freedom and responsibility, the meaning of life, conscience, duty, happiness.
Thus, the ethical dilemma - a situation which affected these and similar questions.More often have to choose between what is right (morally), but unprofitable, and that's bad for others, but advantageous to choose.
socially ethical dilemma - is, for example, consumer safety, rights and discrimination, professional ethics, corruption and so on. N.
One of the most difficult situations in which the only possible get there.You must select one of the mutually exclusive options, with the two will not bring anything good.
moral dilemma - is part of a plot twist in works of art.In these cases, usually appears death.For example, the main character must choose: to sacrifice themselves to save others or not;which of the two friends to help, because he manages to save only one;Whether to throw the wounded to get help;during a difficult birth, or save the child or the mother, and so on. n.
about such matters, people usually prefer not to think.And those who think, a hypothetical choice may not coincide with the real, if there is a real dilemma.This is what is important, often occurs in extreme situations.
How to solve
Any solution to the dilemma - is the search for the most secure version of the two, or combining them into something like a compromise.To come to this, we need the inner workings of man with himself.
can act according to this algorithm:
1. Formulate, what is the dilemma.
2. Collect and analyze information known on all sides.
3. Find other options besides two opposite and obvious.Check each solution found at:
- correct (for personal moral scale);
4. From the list of decisions to exclude totally unacceptable options.
5. By process of elimination to leave anything one.
6. Check the chosen solution in three ways:
- imagine that you have done so;that feeling, I want you to do everything differently;
- imagine how the decision will affect your family;
- imagine the reaction of their social environment (friends, colleagues, neighbors, acquaintances);Can you survive it?
8. Bring the justification of the decision (which it will give you or what will save).
9. To analyze the negative consequences that may result from this decision.
There is this unusual definition of the concept.It is connected with the theory of psychological games."Prisoner's Dilemma" - is an example of the harm that can cause lack of cooperation between people.
The situation itself is a detective character: two inmates charged because of hard evidence of their guilt.For both the dilemma lies in the fact that it is necessary either to cooperate with the police or not.Here are the rules:
- if both co-operate to give a period of 7 years each;
- if both refuse to help the police, sit for 3 years;
- if only one is working, it receives only 1 year, but the second prisoner goes to prison for 10 years.
Thus, the most convenient option - the third (each player tries to betray the other and do it as quickly as possible).But the best two options: either to both cooperate and conspire together to keep silent.
on such examples can be explained by the political, social and economic processes (the arms race, the competition between the two companies for leadership in the market, the price war, environmental crime, and so on. N.).
dilemma - it (important!) Is not a synonym for the word "problem."After all, the latter can be mass-making, while not mutually exclusive.Namely, this feature determines the dilemma in front of you or not.