interest in the US dollar, which has been simmering for a long time, due to economic reasons.But talk of coins issued by that country, not less.History shows that for them the state had a special relationship.More details on how the coins were changed and the United States, read on.
origin of the word "dollar" is of Czech origin.In what was then Bohemia so called silver coins.Later they were renamed Taller.But when in 1700 in colonial America were in circulation patterns in Spain, which in shape and resembles the Bohemian coins, they were called in dollars or pesos.
process of manufacturing banknotes tightly controlled by the government since 1792.Then it was launched Mint, which in its history was engaged in minting banknotes, not only for America but for the Philadelphia, Denver, West Point, San Francisco.
President of the United States in 1792 signed legislation under which $ 1 was equal to 100 cents.These banknotes are still major in the country.But informal vocabulary used by other names: the penny (one cent), nickel (5 cents), dime (two nickel) = one dollar tank (hence came the word "buck").
The legislation is intended to introduce a free issue of coins with a clear fixation ratio of gold and silver.In the context of market volatility were removed from circulation coins of the United States, the value of which increased due to fluctuations in metal prices.Fixed ratio was 1:15.But with each release it changed.
After the adoption of the Constitution, Congress has allowed the Bank of the United States to issue safety notes.But doing the same and the other lending institutions.As a result, turnover was more than a thousand different notes.Fraudsters these coins, US dollar gladly used.By the end of the civil war-third of banknotes in circulation has been tampered with.The solution took the Secret Service.
«Gold Rush" began in 1849.The turnover came Coin "$ 1".After a while there were banknotes in denominations of 3 and 20 dollars.To finance the war against the Confederacy, Congress forced the Treasury to issue their own banknotes.These "greenbacks" were not provided with precious metals until 1878.
Act 1873 abolished the bimetallism and brought gold standard.Silver has become a commodity, and has lost its fixed cost.During this process, followed by deflation, which led to unemployment.For many years, the existence of this system caused a lot of controversy.But it was abolished with the advent of the Great Depression.
heads or tails
first image of the United States coins, a photo of which is presented later, it was copied from Anna Willing Binham, the daughter of the president of First Bank.When Thomas Jefferson design issue involved John Reich.In the role model she spoke with a Phrygian cap on his head.In subsequent years, the design has changed several times.
most memorable instance was released under Theodore Roosevelt.Due to unusual convex and depressed form the shelf life of US coins increased.In the period from 1837 to 1838 banknotes were issued with a new image of the Liberty.They were minted girl who is sitting on a rock, holding in his hand a shield with the inscription «LIBERTY».However, the artist made a mistake.The right hand looked over his left.Still, this coin had been in circulation for 50 years.Due to the accumulation of a large number of samples sverhstaryh in 1892 there was a mass re-issue banknotes.
After winning the World in circulation appeared "peace dollar."It was depicted bald eagle with an olive branch, sitting on a rock with the inscription «PEACE».
particular importance is the coin of "$ 1", which got its name from the engraver - "Morgan".From 1873, she was minted from gold.Act 1873, which repealed bimetallism, has affected the owners of silver mines.But after mass purchases of the metal cost of the coins at times exceeded their face value.As a result, banknotes again began to mint gold (1878) and withdrawn from circulation in denomination of 3 silver and 5 cents.
After the Great Depression, there was a coin in circulation "25 US cents" (Quarter).It was the first where the Liberty - the main symbol of America - was replaced by Washington.This trend has been repeated then.Sample 1964 is now in use.Then there were the new 10- and 50-cent silver samples with a large number of patriotic symbols.The first, which was called dime "Mercury" Freedom portrayed in a Phrygian cap with wings to symbolize the revolution.The reverse has been mapped battle ax blade and olive branches.These signs symbolize a willingness and a desire to protect the world.Samples of 50 cents were "bundled up" to the national flag.US cents (coin) from 2010 began to produce zinc, brass and nickel alloy.
growing interest in US bank notes influenced the coinage of a series of commemorative coins.The series is dedicated to Abraham Lincoln penny.It includes four sample.On the reverse of each displayed important stages of the life of Abraham.The obverse features the profile of the 16th President of the United States.Anniversary series produced in 2009 was made of zinc and coated with copper.The design of the sample, which is in circulation, the Lincoln Memorial is shown.
unique samples of nickel, nickels, appeared in 2004.On the obverse side a portrait of Thomas Jefferson.All of the unique US coins have images showing the stages of development of the West:
- Medal "Acquisition of the World '', which is awarded to members of the expedition on the development of the West.
- boat on which Lewis and William Clark traveled to the Americas.
- Profile grazing bison- the animal is of great importance in the cultures of many nations of America.
- views of the Pacific Ocean.
But most of all collectors interested in coins of 25 cents (Quarter). The first anniversary sample was released in 1976. On the obverse is the imageGeorge Washington. The reverse - a drummer with the torch of victory, surrounded by 13 stars (the number of the first states in the country).
no less interest is the coin "50 States", the release of which has been extended for 10 years. During this period, it was issued on 5samples per year. This coin copper nickel alloy.Parameters: diameter - 24.3 mm; weight - 5.67 g, thickness - 1.75 mm.Commemorative Quarter fully comply with the standard.
first US coins were in circulation in the XVII century.They were made of silver and gold.As a mandatory element of design for a long time a symbol of the country - freedom.Her images are written off from the famous and beautiful women of that time.The design of each issue changed.The obverse of the modern samples of portraits of US presidents, ruling in different years.The reverse - symbols of peace, the power of the state and the readiness to defend.