Under the scientific knowledge to understand the process of identifying the objective laws of reality through scientific methods.To distinguish empirical and theoretical levels of scientific knowledge.
empirical knowledge - direct, "live" study reality through observation, comparison, experiment and measurement of objects and phenomena of the world.
Argued that the classification of the facts - it is empirical knowledge, but work with materials mined empirically, belongs to the field of theoretical knowledge.This level of knowledge is mediated by different methodology and terminology used by the machine.It uses abstract categories and logical structure.
Empirical and theoretical levels of knowledge are inseparable.The scientific knowledge can not only be theoretical or empirical only just as impossible to rolling a wheel, using its only one hemisphere.
Thus, empirically possible to study the physical and chemical properties of the specific items that exist in the real world, for example, some pieces of rock.During the comparison, observation, experiment, and in the process of applying other methods of empirical knowledge can be found out that the properties of these fragments are identical.In this case, theoretically possible to put forward the hypothesis that, every rock, possessing the whole complex set of features will have similar physical and chemical properties.To confirm this hypothesis, it is necessary to revert to the empirical methods and choose to experiment with other fragments of rocks that have given signs.In the event that they have the same properties, the hypothesis is considered confirmed and received the right to call the law, which will be formulated theoretically.
particular specificity is theoretical and empirical knowledge of social phenomena.The difficulty lies in identifying the characteristics and properties of the object, because social phenomena are of the nature that is radically different from the nature of the objects of the exact sciences.To identify patterns of social phenomena is necessary to study the history significant for studying the phenomenon of the events and the reaction of the study group.For example, dissatisfied with the activities of government members of the society in which there is no private property, can start a revolutionary movement.It would seem that the violent method of regime change - a natural reaction to public outrage, but having owned even the minimum necessary for the survival benefits are the same citizens will be afraid to lose them during the coup, so they will be inclined to revolution to a much lesser extent.Thus, the theoretical and empirical knowledge of social phenomena, often much more difficult to study phenomena related to the exact sciences.
scientific knowledge necessary for the study of the world.Using the methodology component of these levels can display patterns and predict events, and makes human life more safe and happy.