As the oldest part of the Acropolis of Athens

Acropolis - a historical monument, is a unique example of ancient Greek culture, included in UNESCO World Heritage Site.For a long time it served as a public and cultural center for the residents of Athens.

History of

as a refuge from the enemy Acropolis - both called the oldest part of Athens - has been used by the local population at the end of the III millennium BC.e.Walls strengthen up to ten meters high and six - wide.To penetrate the hill could be used either western or north side.This first is less reliable, so input to strengthen local residents carefully.

the north side of the oldest part of Athens, apparently, was well hidden thickets of shrubs.To it it was cut into the rock narrow stairs.Over time, the northern entrance to the consolidation was laid with stones, preserved only the western.

Acropolis as a socio-cultural center

Thus, the Acropolis - is the name of the ancient part of Athens.Initially it was a rocky hill on which the strengthening of the city.However, in the second millennium BC, as shown by the results of archaeological excavations here were active litigation, meeting rulers and religious holidays of the action.For example, the researchers discovered was a playground, which served, apparently, an arena for ancient Greek mysteries.At the northern gate of the Acropolis was situated well, thus allowing the residents who were outside the walls to strengthen, high-quality drinking water.


ancient city of Athens and its monuments rightfully occupy a leading position in the research of history of the ancient Greek state.It is known that the percentage of the urban population in those days was much higher in rural areas.Cities were of paramount importance in the life of the policy.Athens, in turn, gradually became the main trade and administrative and distribution center in the entire Mediterranean.This situation played a positive role in the cultural formation of the city.Acropolis as the oldest part of Athens, famous for its temples.

So, in the VI century BC.e.there was a temple Gekatompedon ("stofutovy"), built in honor of the goddess Athena and are extremely beautiful.Its main attraction is the Propylaea gates, decorated with columns.Climb to the temple had slowly down the hill, which also increased the appearance stunning effect.Also, the architecture of the temple and its doors are especially symmetry, which later Greek sculptors used to create sculptures that adorn the pediment of the temple.


Subsequently, on-site Gekatompedon was erected even more magnificent temple - the Parthenon (447-437 years BC. E., The sculptor - Phidias).To get to the temple, visitors had to pass him beforehand, as the entrance was located on the opposite side from the front gate.This was done with a view to the guests could feel the festive spirit of the temple and set to the correct way.So, on the wall of the Parthenon was constructed tape bas-relief depicting a massive procession in honor of the goddess Athena: the riders, the girls with palm branches in their hands (symbol of peace), noble elders.

Currently, the temple is in a dilapidated condition.


Work on the creation of this temple (421-405 BC) was a long and laborious, as the parallel recovered other attractions of the city affected by the Greco-Persian wars.Accordingly, the funds for the construction were severely limited.

originally initiated the construction of the temple appeared Athenian ruler Pericles, and was also the architect Phidias.However, to build a magnificent building it was after the death of Pericles, under the direction of architect Mnesikla.

temple got its name in honor of the Athenian king Erechtheus.The Acropolis is the oldest part of Athens, its architecture captures a plurality of scenes of Greek mythology.So, according to legend, he was the son of Erechtheus Hephaestus (god of fire and blacksmith patron saint) and Gaia (earth goddess).During the war, the town of Eleusis, unleashed on religious grounds, Erechtheus killed the son of Poseidon (Evmolpiass), who was the leader of a hostile clan.In response, the angry god of water with the help of his brother Zeus incurred Athenian ruler lightning.And Erechtheus died.At the same time on the Acropolis allegedly kept a trace of the legendary lightning, which destroyed several marble slabs.Here is the tomb of Erechtheus, the site of which was built the temple of the same name.

Architecture Erechtheion box.The temple consists of two towers of unequal size, which are also located on different levels.The eastern part of the temple dedicated to Athena, the western - Hephaestus, Poseidon, and Booth, the first priest of the goddess Athena and his brother Erechtheus.