Truth and its criteria in the theory of knowledge

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core of the theory of knowledge has always been the problem of truth and its criteria.All schools of philosophy and direction of trying to formulate their understanding of these issues.Aristotle was the philosopher who gave the world the determination, which became a classic: the truth - is that with the help of which we understand whether our knowledge of the actual state of things.We can say that this definition satisfies all the philosophers, even opposing camps - and metaphysics and dialectics, and materialists and idealists.Her most recognized theorists engaged in epistemology, from Thomas Aquinas to Karl Marx.The difference was only that they believed a reality and a fact recognized mechanism for conformity.

Truth and its criteria in the traditional sense can be analyzed on the basis of the following components.First, the reality of which corresponds to the right knowledge, it recognized an objective and existing independently of our consciousness, and the essence of the phenomenon is perceived through the knowable.Second, the truth is the result of knowledge and is related to human activity, with its practice, and how we were able to understand the essence of studying the phenomenon, sooner or later, it turns out in practice.From this point of view, it should adequately reflect the true object of knowledge in the form in which it exists independently of the subject.But this connection is only available logic, because the traditional criteria of knowledge acts as a logical proof.

On the other hand, even Kant put forward the idea that truth and its criteria can not be identified in the development of theoretical science, as this science itself can not provide even full knowledge of the nature of the limited human mind.Moreover, Kant believed that man lives in two worlds at the same time - natural and cultural.The natural world obeys the laws of causality and necessity, it is knowable theoretical mind, but the mind is powerless to know the essence of things, and only moves from one system to another error.A culture of peace is a world of freedom, knowable by practical reason, that is, will that obeys the laws of morality, and misses, and operates almost unmistakable.Therefore, the main criterion for Kant becomes a moral requirement.

problem of a criterion of truth is not alien to the modern understanding, but it has its own specifics.From the standpoint of materialism and positivism, such a criterion can be defined through a dialectical relationship of concepts such as the objective, absolute, relative and concrete truth.The concept of objectivity as to the content of man's knowledge of reality, means that we are talking about the independence of the content of both the man and of society.In this regard, any objective truth can be called absolute, but only to a certain extent.The enrichment and development of knowledge leads to change and expand the content of our ideas about the world, and because objective truth is both a relative.The term "specificity" allows you to define the boundaries of absolute and relative, and the criterion of correctness is practice.

can say that truth and its criteria become the section which is generally delimited philosophers of our time into supporters postpositivists Karl Popper and the founder of philosophical hermeneutics of Hans Georg Gadamer.Popper considered most of the concepts of philosophy, ethics, aesthetics and theology - the emotional categories, justifying certain ideology.Therefore, the main tool of analysis considered a modern classic rationalism, using that philosophy can hold a "demarcation line" between science and pseudoscience, truth and error.Indeed, there is absolutely correct scientific theories and hypotheses have conditional, true to its level of science, and as such they are only when subjected to critical scrutiny (falsification).Thus, from the point of view of Popper's main criterion for distinction of science and metaphysics is the critical principle of falsification.

Truth and its criteria are the main theme of the sensational work of Hans-Georg Gadamer's "Truth and Method".It is not a philosopher shows the relationship of these two categories, and their complete incompatibility.The scientific method of cognition, known as the method is neither universal nor unique.The theoretical development of the world does not apply to any language, nor aesthetics, nor history, it only narrows and impoverishes the experience of truth is not accessible through the study, and through understanding.The latter is available only when the "horizon of understanding" of the author and interpreter merges, fuses, and between the dialogue takes place.The existence of such a dialogue and the search for a common language between different cultural traditions is a criterion of truth human cognition.