postindustrial society has a distinguishing feature: in the course of scientific and technological revolution gave way to the production of goods preferential position of the production services.At the same time the main production resources have become information and knowledge.Thus, the driving force and backbone of the economy are the research and development, and the most important qualities for an employee are considered to be learning, professionalism and creativity.
post-industrial structure of the economy suggests that the total GDP of more than 50% from the services sector.
At the beginning of XXI century to the post-industrial countries include the United States (the service sector - 80% of GDP, 2002), the EU (69.4% in 2004) and Japan (67.7%, 2001).
Key features of postindustrial economy
Now consider the more the difference between post-industrial structure of an industrial:
- growing importance of information and knowledge - a large share of the value of the goods does not take charge of machinery, materials, routine work and marketing research, development, design concept, etc.
- increase in the share of high technology products in the structure of GDP.
- technological improvement and automation of manufacturing processes.
- growing share of services sector in GDP structure and flow of labor resources into it.
- Changing the structure of needs of the population - more and more important for people to acquire intangible benefits, free time.
- emergence of a new motivation to work - the worker is interested not only in the material encouragement, he also seeks to fulfill themselves professionally and creatively, to participate in the management of production.
Speaking about the difference between a post-industrial structure of industrial, should also be noted the rapidly growing role of information production.
main costs fall to the production of the original sample.Further costs of copying are insignificant.
However, this sphere can not develop without the active protection of intellectual property rights at the legislative level, and without enough consumers who have the capacity for its productive use and are ready to offer "non-information" goods in exchange.
Strengthening the position of small and medium business
What distinguishes post-industrial structure of industrial besides this?One of the most important features - reducing the role of mass production and the simultaneous development of small businesses.On the market a large number of small-scale flows of goods with different variants of modifications and new service options.Having the opportunity to meet the needs of different consumer groups, flexible small enterprises for the first time to become competitive.And they are able to take their rightful positions not only in the local markets, but also outside them (globally).
studying what is different from the industrial structure of the post-industrial, is to review in detail the technological developments.In the post-industrial society has to focus on the development of resource-saving, high technology and information (high) technologies:
- production of materials with predetermined properties.
This electronic technology replacing traditional mechanical interactions, the production process becomes automated, and instead of unskilled labor used machines and computers.
change the structure of post-industrial society, in particular the labor force.This means that the share of physical labor in the production process is reduced and highly intellectual and creative work, by contrast, is of great importance.They wanted all the high cost of training the workforce: training, professional development, etc.
dominated by meritocracy - the intellectual elite.Basically becomes a so-called class of professionals.D. Bell - the founder of post-industrialism - also tended to property stratification on the basis of education.
If the industrial structure of the economy requires a constant need for unskilled labor in the post-industrial society, people with low levels of education, in contrast, faces difficulties.
basic form of life is the development of human capacities and inclinations, and material motivation is partly gives way to the desire for self-expression in the work.