the end of XIX and the beginning of the twentieth century in the Russian syndicates have become more, in comparison with other types of associations spread.The world is especially a lot of these unions have been in France.
What is a syndicate?
This term has many meanings enough.In general, these associations is an alliance in which the community of interests formed of a material nature.Syndicates are not treated to the usual industry and civil society.Different countries have different explanations that such a syndicate.For example, the definition used to refer primarily only one type of enterprise unions.And as the goal of the association acted for participants to achieve a relatively low-cost (for stability or height) profit levels.Ways of receipt for production, purchase items needed for the production and marketing of co-regulation.With this interpretation the concept has acquired an international character.Russian legislation, as, indeed, and Europe and the United States did not explain what the syndicate.
distinguish the type considered entrepreneurial unions is to compare them with other species.For example, the association of producers - a trust or cartel.Syndicate - an alliance of entrepreneurs or enterprises operating in the same industry as sellers.In the first case, corporate activities assumed a greater degree of regulation of the production and sales volumes, reducing costs.Thus, the purpose of formation of cartel alliances - the prevention of over-united enterprise profitability.What is a syndicate in this case, and what are its goals?This association has used the contractual settlement prices for the products.The result is the main goal of the unions - to provide a sustainable and high level of business income.Syndicates more than trusts or cartels, aspired to absolute monopolization of the relevant industries and markets.
In Russia, there were different groups of syndicates.Among the industrial unions were the most popular commodity and trade unions.They combined sale or manufacture of various products.In accordance with the degree of consolidation of the association agreement conditionally divided into entrepreneurs (enterprises), which is to achieve a certain (limited) purposes, the trusts and, in fact, syndicates.Depending on the territorial scope of activities of the Union might be national and local.The first covers all the most important companies operating in the same industry, and the second - only a limited number at one or another area.There were also international syndicates.They participated and Russian enterprises.For example, in 1903 the union was formed to sell the beet, manure and hay forks.As part of this alliance was attended by Austrian and German companies for the production of metal products, three Russian companies, which at the time concentrated in the hands of almost all domestic production of forks.
As mentioned above, the legislation lacked the concept of recognizing and explaining the formation of business alliances.In this regard, organizational matters not regulated in any way.This, in turn, exclude the mandatory provisions in the statutes of association.There was no legal framework of the process of the formation of syndicates.Their organizational structure, therefore, is quite imperfect.As the governing body of the Congress acted factory owners.At meetings of the multilateral agreements concluded and monitored and evaluated the results of their implementation, adopted statutes.