The verb etre: conjugation and use

Almost all verbs change the faces and figures.This is called conjugation.Sometimes it comes under the general rules, but often the most used of them have to learn by heart, because the formation of various forms defies any logic.And among them, of course, "etre".

Conjugation of regular verbs in French

Modern man is difficult to do without the knowledge of English at least at the elementary level.Any trip, meeting with foreigners, highly specialized interesting article - for all this you need to learn a foreign language.Most often, schools are English, although French is no less important - it is duplicated in the driver's license information.He is also one of the working languages ​​of the UN and its Secretariat, finally, it just beautiful and romantic.But learn it - no easy task, especially because of the grammar.

Remember how changing the so-called "regular" verbs, it is not difficult.There are two basic groups with different endings, which are conjugated on different principles.The easiest way to illustrate this with the help of the table:


I group

II group

infinitive form

parl er (talk)

fin ir (finish)







Il / Elle









Ils / Elles



Obviously, remember these rules are not so difficult.But unfortunately, not all so simple verbs in their changes.And it is, of course, refers etre.

Conjugation basic irregular verbs

It might seem that the French grammar is not much difficulty.But this is not quite true.Main verbs - etre (be) and avoir (to have) are classified as irregular.That is, their form can only learn to build them on the basis of common rules of conjugation is impossible.Compounding the problem is that these verbs often appear "bundles" that is involved in the formation of more complex grammatical structures.But do not immediately go into the question, to begin to learn how is it that these two verb change.


etre (be)

avoir (have)

Je suis (I am, I exist)

J'ai (I have)

Tu es (You are, you exist)

Tu as (Do you have)

Il / Elle / On est (he / she is,he / it exists)

Il / Elle / On a (He / she has)

Nous sommes (we are, we exist)

Nous avons (We have)

Vous êtes (You are, you exist)

Vous avez (you have, you have)

Ils / Elles sont (they have, they do exist)

Ils / Ellesont (They have)

So really learn conjugation French verb etre, it can be assumed that the grammar of the language is over?Certainly not!After all, there are forms for actions in the past and the future.And there it has a completely different verb forms, which will also have to learn.

Past and future

In French form 8 times, two of which are used only on the letter.There are four moods: indicative, conditional, subjunctive and imperative, as well as communion and design designating compassionate bail.That is all there are 21 types of forms for each verb, including the infinitive.This number is a little scary.And all need to master if you want a well-known French.The conjugation of the verb etre, as already mentioned, is not subject to the general rules and, therefore, in all its forms will memorize

complete table would look like this:

Indicative Mood (Indicatif)


verb form in French

Possible translation

past form

Passé simple

(Simple Past)

je fus

I was / there

tu fus

you were / there

il / elle / on fut

he / she has been/ has / was / there was (a)

nous fûmes

we were / there

vous fûtes

you were

ils / elles furent


Passé composé

(Elapsed completed)

j'ai été

I was / there

tu as été

you were/ there

il / elle / on a été

he / she had / has / was / there was (a)

nous avons été

we were

vous avez été

you were

ils / elles ont été



(Unfinished Past)


I was / there

tu étais

you were / there

il / elle / on était

he / she had / has / was / there (a)

nous étions

we were

vous étiez

you were

ils / elles étaient

they were / there


(Perfect for a long time prior to another action)

j'avais été

I was / there

tu avais été

you were/ there

il / elle / on avait été

he / she was / was / were

nous avions été

we were

vous aviezété

you were

ils / elles avaient été

they were / there

Passé antérieur

(Prior elapsed)

j'eus été

I was

tu eus été

you were

il / elle / on eut été

he / she had / has / was / there was (a)

nous eûmes été

we were

vous eûtes été

you were

ils / elles eurent été


present tense


je suis

I am / I exist

tu es

you are / exist

il /elle / on est

he / she has / there

nous sommes

we are / exist

vous êtes

you are / exist

ils / elles sont

they are / there

future tense forms

Futur simple (simple form)

je serai

I will

tu seras

you will

il / elle / on sera

he / she will

nous serons


vous serez


ils seront


Futur antérieur (future designation sequence)

j'aurai été

I will

tu auras été

you will

il / elle / on aura été

he / she will

nous aurons été


vous aurez été


ils / elles auront été


subjunctive (Subjonctif)


que j'aie été

transferred subordinate "... I was / there"

que tu aies été

transferred subordinate "... that you were / there "

qu'il / elle / on ait été

transferred subordinate" ... he / she had / has / was / there was (a, b)"

que nous ayons été

transferred subordinate" ... that we were / there "

que vous ayez été

transferred subordinate" ... thatyou were / there "

qu'ils / elles aient été

transferred subordinate" ... that they were / there "

Plus-que-parfait (hardly used)

que j'eusse été

I was / there

que tu eusses été

you were / there

qu'il / elle /on eût été

that he / she had / has / was / there was (a)

que nous eussions été

we were / there

que vous eussiez été

that you were / are there

qu'ils / qu'elles eussent été

they were / there

Imparfait (hardly used)

queje fusse

I was / there

que tu fusses

you were / there

qu'il / elle / on fût

that he /She was / has / was / there was (a)

que nous fussions

we were / there

que vous fussiez

that you were / are there

qu'ils / elles fussent

they were / there


que je sois

that I am / I exist

que tu sois

that you are / exist

qu'il / elle / on soit

that he / she has / there

que nous soyons

that we have/ exist

que vous soyez

that you are / exist

qu'ils / elles soient

that they have / there


Passé 1re forme

j'aurais été

I would be / there

tu aurais été

you'd be / there

il / elle / on aurait été

he / she had / has / was / there was (a)

nous aurions été

we would be / there

vous auriez été

you would be

ils / elles auraient été

they would be

Passé 2e forme (hardly used, book form, plus-que-parfait)

j'eusse été

I would be / there (in the designation of unrealized past actions)

tu eusses été

you'd be / there

il / elle / on eût été

he / she would have been / has / was / there was (a)

nous eussions été

we would be / there

vous eussiez été

you would be / there

ils / elles eussent été

they would be


je serais

I wouldIt was (the current)

tu serais

you'd be / there

il / elle / on serait

he / she would have been / has / was / there(a)

nous serions

we would be / there

vous seriez

you would be

ils / elles seraient

theywould be / there

Imperative (Impératif)

Passé (used to refer to a call to action, which must be completed to a certain point)

aie été


ayons été

let us / let us be

ayez été






let us be / Let's



initial form (Infinitif)


avoir été





form of communion (Participe)



who was




Yes, the diversity of French verbs strikes.And after all this have to memorize.The table below shows only etre, conjugation of which is an excellent example of how to behave unpredictably may
irregular verbs.But their huge number.In fact, the fear of irregular verbs should not stop those who want to learn French.Not all of these forms are widely used even carriers, and all that is needed, you can remember, regularly practicing.

Use etre

conjugation of the verb may seem complicated - and it is.But to learn all its forms is necessary, because it will have to be used constantly.

Firstly, it is present in the phrases denoting occupation, nationality, or other qualities of any person:
Je suis étudiante.I am a student.

Secondly, it is used when referring to states:
Je suis malade.I am sick.

Finally, it is used to form the past tense forms of some verbs:
Je suis allé.I go.

So to ignore such an important study of the verb is not exactly be.And his form can be stored in the course of development of various ages, moods and other grammatical constructions.Then conjugation of the verb etre will not be so intimidating - the main thing to do everything gradually.

Examples from other languages ​​

French is no exception in the sense of wrong verb forms.For European languages, it is rather the rule.English to be, German sein, even the Russian "to be"!The last is not used as often as its counterparts in other languages, but it is certainly wrong.This is easily seen, trying to conjugate it.This time, he completely changes the basis for the "is" in the past and the future, it comes back, and the change seemed to occur according to the rules.However, correct to classify it as a "wrong".So before you think about how to have to suffer, learn a foreign language, it should be understood that native - Russian - is hardly simple.