When we talk about the United States, we are referring to the powerful military, economic and political state.But in America, there is a place not only to democratic values, green dollar, and advanced technologies.It is also a country where beauty lives.
history of the national parks
Reserve in the United States very much, and a special place among them are national parks, of which 58 in the United States, a total area of 251.58 thousand sq. Kilometers.The beginning of their creation was laid in the century before.
founded on March 1, 1972, Yellowstone National Park United States is considered the first in the world.Many people find this approach is formal: it has 30 June 1864 signed the Yosemite Grant, according to which the Yosemite Valley and the Mariposa Grove received the status of the park - though not the federal and regional significance: the land transferred to the state of California.Experts believe that this act is a legal precedent by which later was created Yellowstone National Park and the US, followed by many others.Today, both the reserve includes the four most popular in the country.Yosemite is the third largest in 2012, it was visited by 3,853,404 tourists.For this indicator, it is second only to the Grand Canyon (4,421,352) and the Great Smoky Mountains (9685829).
How to get to the park got
Yosemite national park status in 1890 and is located in the US state of California.From San Francisco to him about 200 miles on a good road can be brought quickly in three hours.The path from Los Angeles takes about six hours.The park entrance fee: $ 20 to pay for a car journey with a pedestrian (cyclist or motorcyclist) take half, but the machine is counted as one regardless of the number of passengers.
If you go, for example, a company of eight people can be great save.It is possible to buy a subscription for one year - and then we can at least every day to visit Yosemite.National Park is able to give the traveler a completely new experience, depending on the season or weather.
In one version of "Yosemite" is translated from Indian, as "they are killers."So close neighbors affectionately called the inhabitants of the valley, Indians avanichi for combative and quarrelsome disposition.According to another version, "Yosemite" - a distorted "uzumati" ("bear" in the local dialect).
When the good white people began to win land from the indigenous population of the continent, one of the death squads ran in pursuit of the Indians found a beautiful valley between mountain peaks.Europeans are not without a fight was given to sunny California, a map, and which today is reminiscent of the hot battles with the leaders of the Redskins.In this state, along with Arizona and Oklahoma, home to the reservations in a significant number of US Indian population.
Nature - the best designer
the existence of wonderful landscapes, enjoy the millions of tourists who come, humanity owes the processes taking place on Earth for millions of years.Came in motion due to tectonic shifts Sierra Nevada rose and leaned to the east - this explains its steep sloping western and eastern slopes.
contributed to the creation of the reserve introduced and Ice Age.When the white cold mass moved south, crushing itself under the globe, I have many landscapes.Stepping back, the glacier left a lot of ponds.Some of them still exist today, while others have dried up - in their place formed the fertile lowlands, including the Yosemite Valley.
The park is a lot of water.Here originate two major rivers - Merced and Tuolomni, they tend to sometimes cast from a great height, more than 2,700 streams and streams.California sky looking at 3.2 thousand lakes - and what some crumbs, and an area of over 100 m2 each.
shallow pond count is impossible in principle.In some areas of the park have survived the glaciers.One of them, Layll, occupies about 65 acres and is the largest in Yosemite.National Park by 95% - a completely virgin places, untouched by man.Many plant and animal species have found refuge here.
And let the situation is far from cloudless: 3 species became extinct and 37 are endangered, wildlife protected by the state in the US is very high.Caring attitude of Americans to their country can only admire.
Places of pilgrimage
at the mercy of tourists given the relatively small part of Yosemite Park, but this much: 1.3 thousand. Km of hiking trails and 560 km of roads in one day will not pass and do not obedesh.In connection with the desire to protect the area from undesirable influence of anthropogenic factors, most of the routes - hiking.Some of them are very complicated and not everyone can do.
Those who for various reasons is not a fan of walking, can ride along the Tioga Road - a scenic route along which are scattered streams, meadows and lakes, which reflect the surrounding mountains.Here you can stop at every step, to take pictures of open landscapes.
frequented by tourists and the reservoir Hetch Hetchy, the history of which is quite sad.At this point, there was another valley, this world-famous Yosemite.National Park, unfortunately, loses crowded San Francisco, needs water and electricity.In 1913 the decision was made, and despite the desperate protests of conservationists, the beautiful valley of Hetch Hetchy, disappeared under the water.Travelers
there are relatively few, but you can meet the animals, it is not afraid of a person (although eyewitnesses claim that a lot of them around).Employees sternly warned about bears: bears accustomed to human food - climb to take away, not obradueshsya.
To carry and carry food in the park should be with special precautions, and at night in a car can not leave anything that even remotely resembles edible: resourceful clumsy crushed not a single machine.Encounters with bears people often lead to big trouble, so today the park administration is eager to bring these meetings to a minimum.
Another wonder of Yosemite national park - Mariposa Grove.There grow about 200 sequoias, the most formidable and long-lived trees in the world.Some specimens grow up to 100 meters in height and 12 in diameter.There are no giants in the park, but they are "stunted" counterparts, vymahal up to 80 m and age 3.5 thousand years across.People standing around this tree seem gnomes from Scandinavian fairy tales.
Crowds of tourists precipitated Gleysher Point and Tyne View, which offers wonderful views of the cliffs and waterfalls of Yosemite.National Park is not in vain the name of the valley: it is inimitably beautiful.
Yosemite Valley - Pearl Park
repeatedly photographed view of the valley that opens to travelers upon arrival.Log "features" of the famous cliff "El Capitan" and with two waterfalls: Braydalveyl (translates as "bride's veil") on one side and "ponytail", also called the "waterfall of fire" - on the other.In February, the tourists have the opportunity to watch the amazingly beautiful and unusual sight: the sunlight bouncing off the rocks, creating the illusion that it is not water, but hot metal falling from a height of 650 m.
waterfall in Yosemite national park countless.Large and small, they douse tourists clouds mist cascades escape from the granite cliffs, hastily and noisily to their service - the celestial rainbow, and a myriad of suns reflected in their jets.Hardly ever will be able to agree which of them are the most beautiful.Beauty - a relative term, and in general a matter of taste - it can not be measured, as opposed to specific concepts such as the size.From this point of view, the record keeping of Yosemite Falls, part according to one - the seven, and on the other - of the twenty highest in the world.
admire waterfalls and lakes should be sent in the spring.In the hot summer, they are not as full-flowing, and some dry up altogether.
Not only lovers admire the beauty of the world come here.The park is also a kind of Mecca for climbers, who considered it a matter of honor to climb on the impregnable fortresses, which are abundant in the surrounding landscape.One of the places of worship of climbers - rock El Capitan, a granite monolith Mahina sheer height of 900 meters.
its summit crowned with clouds and trees at the foot seem tiny and helpless, as if came running from all sides - and suddenly stopped, were unable to climb up.Wood, of course, such a feat is not available - but the rock submits some people.It's hard climbing routes on the cliff "semi-dome" and "Sentinel Dome."
infrastructure and rules
to skim at least to the main attractions, it is necessary to spend at least 2-3 days.The Yosemite for that all conditions.More Ilf and Petrov in his "one-storey America" Much has been written about what heights reached Americans in the pursuit of comfort and how much it means for their service.
Since then, if anything has changed, it is only for the better.US Parks, generally have excellent infrastructure and Yosemite - no exception.Each camper has to obey the rules that guarantee the security and to himself and others (not only by the way, the people).You can spend the night at a campsite or entirely the hotel.If you plan to overnight in another place - you need to get permission.It need and amateur fishing, climb on the rocks and do a variety of scientific research (this can be here too).
Yosemite National Park (United States) can not be described in words.But if you try, then that's it, that word glory.The paintings of local landscapes touched to tears - you can spend hours watching as the flowing river between the mountain peaks of the clouds, and it float away into the distance triangular treetops.