Immanuel Kant - German philosopher, in the judgments which have influenced the work of Plato and Berkeley, Wolf and Sextus Empiricus, Spinoza and Leibniz.The future scientist graduated from high school, "Friedrichs-Collegium", and then continued his studies at the University of Konigsberg, however, get a diploma once he failed.Immanuel Kant, whose biography includes many difficult events, was forced to interrupt their studies because of the death of his father and start working.Only in 1755 the young scientist was able to defend his doctoral thesis, and got right to work as a teacher at the university.
Stages creativity : The "subcritical" period Immanuel Kant holds the position of scientific materialism, focusing on the problems of mechanics and cosmology, physical geography and anthropology.At this point, scientists are developing problems posed by the previous philosophical thought.So, he put forward a new hypothesis of the formation of the solar system for the first time introduced the concept of the gaseous nebula, studied the tides and examined their role.The scientist thought about the natural origin of humanity without divine intervention and sought to classify animals according to their kinds.
in "critical" period of philosopher Immanuel Kant dealt with problems of epistemology, concentrating on the process of learning, reflected on general philosophical and metaphysical problems of being human, and knowledge, morality and aesthetics, law and the state.Scientist makes conclusions about the possibility of a priori knowledge in the form of theoretical science and mathematics, giving each a priori forms of sensory images.During this period his work Immanuel Kant, whose philosophy is changing dramatically, becoming an agnostic, denying the possibility of metaphysical knowledge.
Philosopher understands that full disclosure of the concepts of "nature", "soul" and "God" is impossible, and no one will be able to associate these words with concrete sensory images.And the object of knowledge can be constructed from human consciousness sensual images using a priori forms of reason.Scientist conducting fine line between intelligence and reason, and ascribes to the concept of the first dialectical character.Thus, according to the philosopher, the human mind is confronted with contradictions in the effort to solve the problem of infinite or finite world, its complexity or simplicity.
Epistemology : Immanuel Kant rejected the dogmatic method of knowledge, using instead a way to critical philosophy, the essence of which is to examine the possibility of knowing the reason.Scientist put forward the thesis that the "pure" knowledge begins with experience, which is based on an a priori activity of consciousness.The power of human reason, as Kant thought, is not unlimited, and often associated with the dogmas that are amenable to justification.And the knowledge of the outside world does not always reflect objective reality, and are shaped by sensory images thanks to contemplation.
moral doctrine : a significant place in the works of Kant took his judgment of God and the Church, and it is not a world created without divine intervention.However, the philosopher mentions the alleged morality to which instinct and external authority, the principles of pleasantness and usefulness of various human emotions.A person is considered by scientists from both sides - as a special events and as a "thing in itself".On the one hand, the actions of any person determined by all sorts of external factors, but on the other - the highest moral principles.Therefore, any member of the human race tends to material well-being, and to virtue, although these desires are often at odds with each other.