Types of banking systems.

successful development of the national economy of the state in the country requires the efficient banking system.There are many ways to build it.But first, the country's leadership to decide on the what kind of banking system is expected to develop.What guidelines in this case, may draw the attention of the government?

What is the banking system

Before examining the grounds on which can be classified banking system (types, structure of each model) define the essence of the term under review.What are the common approaches to the disclosure of the relevant research concepts?

The Russian expert community under the banking system is most often understood environment interaction of the state, various institutions and organizations, individuals and legal entities in which the statutory transactions with cash and financial assets.These communications can occur via many different mechanisms.The banking system - a financial institution that is an integral part of the national economy.

Essence Communications tagged with state, businesses and individuals is largely determined by the type of the banking system.We study the way they can be.

Classification banking systems

There are many reasons for the classification of banking systems.In the Russian practice has spread the concept on which the relevant financial institutions are presented in the following basic versions:

- Distribution (or one-tier) system;

- transitional system;

- market (or two-tier) system.

study them more specifics.

tier system

Marked types of banking systems suggest, therefore, the selection of single-level financial institutions.

Their specificity is the presence of horizontal communications between credit institutions, the implementation of the capital management operations based on universal standards and norms.The marked type of banking system is characterized mainly for countries with weak economies, and for countries in which the practice of administrative methods of economic management system.

two-tier system

examines the concept under which determined the different types of banking systems, and involves the allocation of two-tier financial institutions.

Within the last communication between the credit institutions are carried out both in the horizontal and vertical plane.Regarding the second mechanism involves interaction between the Central Bank - a key financial institution in the country - and by lower banks.Within the framework of the horizontal mechanism established communication between peer in terms of the legal status of credit institutions.The role of the Central Bank in a two-tier system - to ensure the liquidity of financial institutions accountable as well as in the implementation of macroeconomic regulation.

Soviet model of organization of the banking system

types of banking systems, we have discussed above, it is not correlated with the respective financial institution that existed in Soviet times - due to the fact that he has a number of unique characteristics.What is it expressed?We have noted that the one-tier banking system presupposes the existence of a single mechanism for communication between the individual credit institutions - horizontally.Maisonette suggests that the process of interaction between financial institutions and the Central Bank is connected.

Speaking of the Soviet model, not to say that it fully characterize the features of the first or second type of systems.The fact that banks in the USSR worked in a pronounced centralization and strict subordination to the State Bank.That is no horizontal communication between them almost did not happen.In turn, any criteria to select the level of interaction of two financial institutions in the USSR also difficult to detect.The fact that the State Bank has been part of a single national banking system and its role similar to that performed by the Central Bank of Russia is not limited to the maintenance of liquidity and regulation.Its functions are actually expressed in the provision of a full range of banking services provided by the law through a network of subordinate regional banks.

However, some researchers still are inclined to the Soviet model of the organization of the credit and financial institutions to the type of single-level.What is the argument of the experts on this subject?The fact that the State Bank of the USSR, possessing monopoly on virtually all types of banking services, in fact, thus becoming "one level" of the capital.There are researchers who classify the credit and financial system of the USSR and other states, which are characterized by administrative model of economic management as a separate species - centralized.

transitional system

What features characterize the banking system in transition?It is possible to trace the communication, which is characterized as a single-level versions for financial institutions as well as for two-level.In the first case can we speak about the presence of state banks, which in terms of turns for a significant share of the entire national banking and financial system and at the same time preserve the independence of the Central Bank expressed in terms of the implementation of financial policies, market promotion, prioritizing development.On the other hand, in the banking system may be present institutions, which, in turn, directly accountable to the Central Bank and retain sovereignty within the limits established by law.

modern banking system of the Russian Federation

So we looked at the basic types of banking systems in the framework of the concepts that have become widespread among modern scholars.Speaking about modern financial institutions in Russia, how can they be classified?

For most signs the banking system of the Russian Federation - two levels.It practically does not conduct activities of financial institutions that are not accountable to the Central Bank.In turn, the Russian banking system involves the operation of a large number of credit institutions that are actively interact with each other in a horizontal plane.The Central Bank of the Russian Federation carries out both equity and regulatory functions.It provides banks with liquidity by providing them with loans according to the benchmark interest rate.

However, some researchers believe that the type of the Russian banking system is now - still mixed.But not in terms of a combination of features and a single-level two-level models, in terms of the presence of certain symptoms that are characteristic of the centralized Soviet system of organization of the financial institution.Experts argue this point of view the fact that the leading banks in the Russian Federation - the state.These include a Savings Bank, "VTB", "Agricultural Bank".This determines the fact that the state, like the State Bank of the USSR, in fact, holds the national credit and financial system under control.In turn, in the Russian banking system is well-established market-type, suggesting that in the corresponding segment of commercial activity will be attended by a large number of players interact horizontally.This feature is characteristic of the two-level model.

Note that before the Soviet Union - in the days of the Russian Empire - in our country there are also sufficiently well-developed banking system.It is characterized, according to many researchers, highly effective interaction of public and private financial institutions.According to some experts, the historical experience of those years to a certain extent be applied to modern Russia.

International experience

learn the basic principles on which banks operate, and the banking system of the Russian Federation consider the most remarkable facts concerning the work of the financial institutions in foreign countries.Especially useful to pay attention to the experience of advanced Western economies.The development of the Russian banking system is carried out in the framework of the capitalist model.Obviously, the experience of Western countries in this sense is incomparably greater.

approaches to the definition of the role of banks

Among the most notable of trends in modern banking in Western countries - rethinking approaches to understanding the role of banks in the national economy.The fact is that in Western countries the classic-bank financial institutions - are not the only players in the relevant market segment.It is planned to strengthen the role and importance for the national economy of non-bank organizations.These structures may operate to some extent close to the one that is characteristic of the classical banks: for example, to provide services to receive payments, facilitate the implementation of cash operations.At the same time, the work of such structures may not require a license from the Central Bank and will not be in such a case, just as strict checking for compliance with financial legislation that is practiced supervisory authorities for banks.

course, such organizations are already actively engaged in activities in Russia.These include primarily electronic-payment systems, as well as micro-credit organizations.Indeed, they can not be counted among the banks, but at the same time they can provide services that are typical as time for classical financial institutions.According to some researchers, the specific activity of EPS, microfinance organizations and other non-banking institutions in Russia that the legislator seeks to harmonize the provisions that regulate the activity of structures of this type and classical banks.What is the reasoning of experts who hold this view?Thus, the researchers believe that the Law "On the electronic-payment system" as time suggests marked the unification of regulatory standards.For example, a user identification portion corresponding services.In the first years of work in Russia, EPS for the full use of electronic-payment services in the Russian Federation the person does not have to prove their identity, that since the adoption of the law in question, such a need arose.

In turn, in the west part of the banking system, as noted by some analysts, is seen in a different context.EPS and other players who do not belong to the category of classic credit and financial institutions should, in accordance with one of the popular concepts should occupy separate, not directly related to banking niche.But what criteria can be the basis of separation of the two segments?

Thus, according to the researchers, the banks and the banking system to perform the following range of functions:

- depository services to individuals and legal entities with full guarantee of preservation of capital;

- organization for businesses of cash operations with all the attributes of legal significance;

- the provision of "long" loans (mortgage, loans for entrepreneurs).

In turn, the non-bank arrangements should, in accordance with one of the most popular concepts that focus on the following Activity:

- to provide fast and reliable money transfers, receiving payments for private and public services;

- providing the technology infrastructure for the payment of tickets for different modes of transport;

- the provision of "short" loans (mainly those that are classified as micro-credits);

- To facilitate effective operation of online stores.

These are the key principles that reflect the distinction between the role of the traditional bank financial institutions and non-banking institutions in the West.To what extent such a concept is incompatible with Russia's financial communications practice?According to some experts, the key of the above principles are quite suitable for the Russian Federation.The most important thing - the legislator to provide a proper level of support of activities of market players in terms of the relevant services.

Commercial and investment banks

In many Western countries practice the distinction banks (and this is another possible basis for classifying the relevant systems) to those that operate credit and financial functions, and those that practice primarily in investment activity (related to the purchaseand sale of shares, securities and so on. d.).For example, in the United States is actually two different types of organizations.Similarly, the case in Japan.In Russia, there was a practice in which a single brand can be formed units responsible both for the bank and for investment.For example, in the structure of the holding company "VTB" is the structure of "VTB 24" and "VTB Capital."The first deals with banking, the second - just the same investment activity.

role of the Central Bank

Features of the national banking system is largely determined by the specific activity of the Central Bank, its role in the economy of the state.What are the approaches to its understanding of the developed capitalist economies?

There are states in which the Central Bank is the sole regulator of the national financial system.Among those - Australia, Ireland, Italy.In some countries, the Central Bank divides marked function with other organizations - such a practice has developed in the United States, Germany, France.Among the most interesting models of organization of the national banking system - American.

Thus, in the structure of the financial institution in the United States there are actually four types of institutions:

- national lending institutions;

- state banks within the structure of the Federal Reserve System;

- banks are not included in the Fed, but affiliated with the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation;

- credit structures that do not interact with distinguished organizations.

Fed in this case is an analogue of the Central Bank, which carries out the functions of emission and liquidity support.However, in the US can also operate credit institutions that are not related to the activities of the Federal Reserve System.

Prospects for the development of the banking system of the Russian Federation

So, we studied the concept and types of banking systems.Which of the concepts of development of the financial institution is best suited to Russia?The answer to this question requires a complex analysis of the economic, social, and in many respects also the cultural and historical factors that characterize the specificity of the Russian Federation as a state.According to many researchers, the problems of the Russian banking system, that there are now, in particular, a relatively high percentage of loans, relatively high dependence of Russian financial institutions by foreign loans are predetermined as time is the fact that many western standards put into practice banking in Russiawithout taking into account the specifics of the national communications of government, business and citizens in this area.

In this regard, many experts consider it useful to examine not only the experience of western countries in terms of development of the financial institution, but also the historical model of the functioning of credit institutions in Russia.Especially since they, as we noted above, there were over long periods and were characterized, according to some researchers, a high degree of sophistication.Thus, it functioned in Russian historical types of banking systems and their characteristics may be no less important source of expertise in terms of improving the current model of public administration national capital.