Already in the early years of the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet leadership realized the need to appreciate the feat of defenders of the Motherland.To this end it has been established medals that were awarded to the most distinguished soldiers and civilians who have shown bravery and courage in the fight against the Nazi invaders.One of these awards was the medal "For Defense of the Caucasus" (1944).Today it is kept in many families as a reminder of the heroism of our fathers and grandfathers.
Before you tell us about the medal "For Defense of the Caucasus", is to say a few words about how there was a battle for this important geopolitical region, and what is the victory of the Russian army in this direction had for the outcome of the Second World War.
outbreak of hostilities over control of the Caucasus is considered to be 25 July 1942.However, the German General Staff has decided to take over the territory adjacent to the Don, the previous month.To do this, the Fourth Panzer Army Wehrmacht had to break through the front in the area between Kharkov and Kursk, and then was taken by the city of Rostov-on-Don, which is an important strategic point.
Battle for the Caucasus
In August 1942, the troops of Nazi Germany seized the "Shelter eleven" - the most high-altitude mountaineering Soviet hotel, located at an altitude of 4130 meters, which heroically defended the NKVD troops (many of the survivors of these battles were subsequentlyawarded the medal "For Defense of the Caucasus").They there was the flag of the Third Reich.This event was covered by the world press as the completion of the capture of the Caucasus, and Hauptmann Heinz Groth, who carried out this operation, Hitler was awarded the Knight's Cross.
month after the dramatic events described by German troops occupied most of the city of Novorossiysk, and after some time passes Marukh Sancharsky and the Caucasus Mountains.However, from this point on their progress slowed, and then completely stopped by the Soviet Army.Until the end of 1942 remained at the front of the balance of power that has been violated as a result of successes of Soviet troops at Stalingrad.The result is a threat to the environment of the Wehrmacht forces in the Caucasus, has aroused the concern of the German General Staff.
Counterattack Soviet troops
Large-scale military operations in the Caucasus have been initiated since the beginning of January 1943.As a result, the Wehrmacht troops were forced to retreat to avoid being surrounded.A few weeks later the Soviet soldiers managed to reject the Wehrmacht west of Rostov-on-Don and the first half of February was marked by a landing operation in Novorossiysk.Thus arose bridgehead "Small Earth", which played a major role in the liberation of Novorossiysk, the battle of which will last until mid-September.By the way, there are distinguished Leonid Brezhnev, and later received a medal "For Defense of the Caucasus", the cost of which can be found today in faleristov.
Parallel to this, in April in the sky over the Kuban occurred one of the largest aerial battle in the history of warfare, in which Soviet pilots turn the tide in their favor, and defeated the troops of the Luftwaffe.
September 3, Hitler was forced to order the immediate retreat of the German troops on the Crimean peninsula.Thus, to October 9, 1943 Division RSC fully mastered Taman, t. E. An event that most military historians believe the actual end of a bloody and bitter battle for the Caucasus.Such an outcome of the battle played a large role in the fate of the Transcaucasian republics of the USSR.In particular, they escaped occupation.In addition, the success of the Soviet army prevented the entry of Turkey into the war, has long cherished dream to expand its borders at the expense of the Soviet Union.
Awards: medal "For Defense of the Caucasus" (general information)
author of the sketch is the artist N. Moskalev.The award was established in May 1944.The Medal shall be worn on the left breast and, if the award has other awards of the USSR, it is placed after the medal, rewarding the defense of Kiev.According to the data that existed at the time of the celebration of the 40th anniversary of the Great Victory, just got it 870,000 Soviet citizens.
Regulation on medals
This award was given to all soldiers of the Red Army, the NKVD and the Soviet Navy, as well as representatives of the civilian population, who have taken a direct part in the defense of the Caucasus.According to the Regulation on the establishment of its reason for this is data, which certifies the actual part in the hostilities in the region.The awards were presented on behalf of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet.
medal "For Defense of the Caucasus" were intended for soldiers who actually participated in the defense of the Caucasus for at least three months, as well as in the period from July 1942 to October 1943.As for civilians, the award was given to the people who took part in the fighting, as well as those who built defensive positions and fortifications, since the autumn of 1941.Like other prizes Second World War, the medal "For Defense of the Caucasus" is no longer manufactured.The fact that virtually all of those to whom it should be handed over, received it, including post-mortem.
Medals for the Defense of the Caucasus: the description
This award size and shape (a circle with a diameter of 3.2 cm) is identical to most of the other, established during the Second World War, and is made of brass.
On top of its obverse depicts Mount Elbrus, at its foot - oil rigs, which moves past a group of tanks, over the tops of the mountains - silhouettes flying aircraft.The award is bordered rim with the image of garlands of grapes and flowers in the center of which, at the top, it is a small five-pointed star.At the bottom of the medal is the inscription "USSR", and between the letters - the hammer and sickle.Under the garland in a circle plotted in raised letters, folding in the phrase "for the defense of the Caucasus".As for the reverse, it is made in a traditional style and it is possible to read the slogan "For Our Soviet Motherland", over which the present image of the hammer and sickle, towering above the surface.
Medal ribbon has a small round eyelet through it, as well as a thin metal ring connected to the pentagonal block, which is covered in a moire silk ribbon olive width of 2.4 cm. The edges of coated blue stripes, and in the middle - two white stripes(width of the bands - 2 mm).
medal "For Defense of the Caucasus", the price of which today ranges from 700 to 2000 rubles, can become an ornament to any collection faleristov.