richness and expressiveness of any language are determined not only by the number of words in its composition, but also areas of their use, the semantic diversity, associative capabilities, as well as means of formation of new tokens on the basis of existing ones.Synonymous and antonymous communication and paradigm phenomenon ambiguity also contribute to the development of language.Due to its vast possibilities, Russian language is a living, moving phenomenon is sensitive to any processes taking place in society and reflect them.Therefore rightly considered that the life of the people is reflected primarily in his own language.
What does it mean to be "smart"?
One of the basic concepts of lexicology - uniqueness and ambiguity.Linguists have found that every word may be one or more semantic values, the most important of which are described in the dictionaries.Expand their connotations helps contextual environment ranks synonymous.Take, for example, the word "smart".Synonym selected him "to go" - who knows.However, it does not reflect the entire spectrum value, and a small portion of it.In fact, the word evokes associations much more.
the famous writer Hans Christian Andersen fairy tale has ostrosatiricheskoy addressed not so much to children as to adults - about a king who appeared before the people in the nude.Deceivers tailors told him that poshyut wonderful outfit of this matter, which can see only a clever (synonymous in this case - has its place) people.Neither the august person nor his courtiers did not want to admit they do not see and the strings in the hands of crooks.After all, no one wants to pass for a fool, sitting on another chair or throne minister.It was only a child, the soul and the consciousness of which were more sincere and spontaneous, not afraid to cry out that the king - naked!This example points to another shade of meaning of the word "smart" is a synonym - "honest, truthful, fair, honest."
try to establish how the token came into our speech.According to the dictionary Vasmer, it comes from the Slavonic form "um."It is the language of the base common to all Slavic peoples, and there were the old Russian word "um" Old Church Slavonic variant, then Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, etc.Is the word "smart" synonymous with Latin roots - «aumuõ», that is, the mind, and «aumenis» - «Memory», and it is quite provable link with Old Slavonic roots.
a tour of the dictionaries
Consider now the token is treated in the dictionaries.This will help isolate shades of meaning and possible options for its consumption in the speech, literature, etc.
- Let's start with the dictionary edited by Ephraim.The interpretation of the word it is given on the basis of its part of speech toiletries.For example, if we consider the pronoun "smart", such is its importance: "the one who has the mind clear, sensible, good."If an adjective, it is correlated with the corresponding noun "sensible - people / smart, intelligent animal."This is a direct value.But there is also portable.According to him, synonymous with "smart" - skillful (skillful hand), intelligent (smart machine computer), sane scientist.
- Thesaurus Collegiate Dictionary - there is interpreted as meaning "has wit, common sense, prudent."For example: "Tema, be smart, not dissolved!»
- The dictionary Kuznetsova differentiated value of the token, depending on whom in question - of the person or animal.In the first case, the interpretation of a "smart - one who possesses common sense," the second - "smart, intelligent."For example, "smart girl", "clever cat."This value is a primary, fundamental.Recycled same derivative corresponds to the explanation of "smart - born mind, the rate of discernment, of education."Examples: "smart film - informative;smart thing - sensible. "
- One of the most respected and fundamental linguistic periodicals - Dictionary Ozhegova and Shvedova.The interpretation of the words in it "smart" close to the interpretation Kuznetsova.Namely, the primary "smart - having the mind or to express it."For example, "smart appearance, the person, a mentor."In a figurative sense it could be "smart paper", "intelligent speech".The secondary meaning of "reasonable, created by the mind" - "act wisely."
Couples synonyms and antonyms
analysis of lexical meaning of the word we are interested in would be incomplete without taking into account its links synonymous and antonyms paradigm.To identify them, once again appeal to dictionaries.What is the synonym for the word 'intelligent' guides offer?This "reasonable," "stupid," "wise," "prudent", "clever", "intelligent", "smyshlёny", "thinking" conversational "brainy", "brainy", "brainy".All of them share a common sema "presence of mind".So, in comedy Griboyedov's "Woe from Wit" FAMUSOV speaks of Chatsky that he "small head / And glorious writes translates."Another striking example synonymization - idiom "head on his shoulders."Upotreblёnny in a figurative sense (typical idioms), it implements the same meaning: "The man in this life will never disappear if he has a head on his shoulders.From any position outputs will find a piece of bread, and always will produce. "As for antonyms, then they are obvious: "stupid," "stupid," "forgetful," "lame", "stupid", "headless".