That represents a paraphrase , examples of its use in speech and artistic works

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expressiveness and beauty of Russian admired Lomonosov, Derzhavin, Gogol, Turgenev, Tolstoy, and many other writers, poets, whose life and activities were directly related to the word.They noted his harmony, a rich, varied vocabulary, semantics extended to enable them so skillfully use all the graphic and expressive means.

Introducing the concept

That represents a linguistic phenomenon as a paraphrase?Examples of it we meet quite often in everyday communication and artistic speech.If you hear someone instead of the word "moon" tells "the queen of the night" or "night-shining" and instead of "stars" - "guiding lights", "pearls" and "precious placers", you should know that faced itwith said term.In art, it allocated more ancient Greeks, they also gave him a definition: "an expression describing one event with another."E. Allegory, "one instead of the other" - so literally in Greek sounds "paraphrase."Examples of such "around it" (another translation, interpretation) is fairly easy to find.Why, even the famous Pushkin's appeal to the sea: "Farewell, free element!ยป

paraphrase - a paraphrase

means of speech expressiveness in question in the article, people ignorant in the art trail, often confused with a paraphrase - wordvery close in sound but have a different meaning.This term refers to different types of text retelling: detailed, abridged, adapted, transcriptions of the poems in prose, and vice versa.To this also applies to various comments, including scientific texts.Quite a different purpose paraphrase.Examples of his speech in many ways similar to the role of pronouns in grammar.Both linguistic phenomena are called objects, features, and point to them, "he" instead of "man" and "one-armed bandit" instead of "slot machine."

Speech expressiveness

trails descriptive expressing some concepts with the help of others, in the study of literature, there are quite a lot.This metaphor and pun, and comparison.Notable among these is the paraphrase.Examples identified colloquial and literary texts, make it possible to classify the phenomenon into logical subgroups and shaped.The logic is based on a descriptive point clear, visible, easy vychlenimyh relationships between objects, phenomena, events.A shaped - on the system of association and combining hidden links.That represents a logical paraphrase?Examples in the Russian language are fairly easy.This is "the author of" A Hero of Our Time "instead of" Lermontov "and the" green areas "instead of" plants ".Their distinguishing feature - a widespread, transparency lexical meaning, stereotypical play.

Art word

Several different kind of figurative paraphrase.Examples from the literature help to reveal its essence as accurately as possible.If somebody called Oblomov, it becomes clear that we have in mind the qualities of the person, as laziness, lack of desire to do anything, idle daydreaming.Plyushkin has already become synonymous with avarice in its highest manifestation, the Moscow native Russian speakers are often called "white stone" and St. Petersburg - Pushkin's words: "Peter's creation."In this case we are not dealing with a pure euphemism, and its coalescence with other trails: metaphors and similes.Often, they are sold (ie. E. Have lost their pronounced figurative meaning), expanded or hidden.

Two in one

The more interesting paraphrase?Examples from the literature and speaking prove its relation to other language phenomenon - a euphemism, rather, the imposition of one concept to another.When is this happening?If you want a rough, stylistically reduced word is replaced by another, more "noble".For example, instead of "cough" speak "to clear his throat," instead of "fart" - "spoil the air."A prostitute called "a woman of easy virtue", "hetaera", "representative of the oldest profession", "Messalina."The process of cleansing the sinuses - a beautiful expression "to use a handkerchief" and so on. D. Euphemisms appeared entrenched in the language while actively shape his literary norm, there was a struggle for the purity and accuracy.More Lomonosov his theory of the "three calm" had a sharp boundary between "high", "medium" and "low" vocabulary.It was believed that refined and educated nobles worthless to use in speech rudeness.Although the doctrine of Lomonosov primarily concerns literature, labor and genres, it has found the widest application in society.

There is another reason for the appearance of euphemisms: paraphrase is subjective and determined by religious cult factors.For example, instead of "hell" in Russia, especially among the people was to say, "impure" or "wicked."It was believed that these names do not attract too much attention to the people of supernatural forces, and those, in turn, will not annoy "God's souls."Similarly, the peasants did not say aloud the word "house", calling him "boss", "grandfather", "assistant."Quite often the word "himself."They believed that somehow offended the house and start their pakostnichat.And if you call it "right", then so you can appease the spirit, which is sure to bring good luck to the house.