All literary works, depending on the characteristics of the narrative and the author's position in relation to the represented, divided into clans.And each of them in turn, divided into genres.
In literary criticism the following basic labor literature: epic, poetry, drama, in some cases, even added to them and lyric-epic genres.For each of them, we'll talk more later in the article.
Epic - a way to see the events from
At the time, Aristotle argued that the narrative can be conducted either something detached from yourself (epic), either directly from you (lyrics), or else put the story into the mouth of the heroes(drama).Although, of course, this definition is very limited, it is to some extent helps to clarify the basic principles of the separation of specific works of art.
The three main kinds of literature, as a rule, begin to transfer to the epic, which is an objective representation of the course of events taking place regardless of the author.It works in such acts, as a rule, as an outside observer and pereskazchika.Even if the narrative in the first person the author takes a position in relation to the events which are transmitted in the past - so kept the so-called "epic distance".
tempo epic narrative always unhurried and size as epic inclined to thoroughness.This, incidentally, often interfere in the production of famous novels on stage as full adherence to the text of the play makes it unreasonably prolonged.
The main genres epic accepted to stories, novels, short stories and essays.It may also include the epic and folklore products - tales, legends, epics and historical songs.
Learn more about the major genres of epic
main genera of fiction, as already mentioned, it is divided into genres and the largest of the epics is the epic novel.It usually covers a certain historical period and includes a large number of plot lines that intersect with each other (LN Tolstoy's "War and Peace" or Mikhail Sholokhov "Quiet Flows the Don").
Behind him on the bulk should be a novel.This genre also includes a large number of characters and storylines.Although, for example, the modern detective novels often have only one such line.
In the literature there are a huge number of versions of the title of the genre - the family, social, female, fiction, fantasy, mystery, and so on. N.
On small epic genres
main genera literature suggest the presence of small and epic genres.These include the story (it is rather average in terms of the genre), which focuses usually on one or the fate of a single event.
same story, which, incidentally, is considered young epic genre (he only began to take shape in the early 19th c.), Is the story of some episodes from the life of the hero.Very similar in shape to the story is a modern story.
in modern literature to speak of separate essay.The story in it, as opposed to the story or novella, built on documentary evidence.However, among all the named genres there are many intermediate forms.
does not lose its popularity and fairy tales - stories of fictional characters with the obligatory participation of magical powers.A modern fairy tale has little resemblance to the folk as strongly associated with obscheliteraturnogo currents and trends.
an epic race, and also include popular genres nowadays humorous anecdotes, jokes, parables and essays.
One of the three main kinds of literature - poetry - different from the rest of its subjectivity and exaggerated interest in the copyright world.For it is also characterized by heightened emotionality, striving not display events, and personal attitude towards them.By the nature of these emotions are several lyrical genres: ode (ceremony, praising anything poem), an elegy (a lyrical meditation on the transience of life) and satire (accusatory, angry work).
But modern poets, as they themselves say, write poetry - that is, works that are difficult or impossible to strictly refer to any genre.
the drama inside and outside
Hegel, trying to deepen the division of Aristotle proposed for the main labor literature, explained that at the heart of the drama is the synthesis of lyric and epic.After all the drama, from his point of view - it is a conflict based on individual aspirations, which then served as the objective events.
and the main distinguishing feature of the drama is its focus not on the story and the show (live picture) of a given situation.Copyright beginning it is virtually absent, and if epic conducting dialogue - this is just one of the means of disclosure of the hero, the drama of the dialogue is often the only way to describe it.
This change of emphasis leads to radical changes in the structure of the work.So, it becomes more dense characters, refined, accentuated than in the epic, in fact it creates the necessary dramatic tension.The close relationship with the theater genre called also plays an important role - the drama is always spectacular, which, incidentally, is strictly regulated, and its size.
But to interpret the drama only as the text for setting extremely wrong.This genre retains its impact on the reader and not practicing on stage and, along with the theater is also a literary life.
main genera literature as you can see, have their own genres.Not an exception in this sense and the drama.The most striking and historically significant among dramatic genres have always been a tragedy and a comedy.
tragedy is a picture of an irreconcilable conflict, which is usually inevitable fatal character and often ends with the death of the hero.
Comedy characterized as humorous, comic approach to the image of reality and the specific conflict.In this genre, he is not irreconcilable, and, as a rule, safely allowed.There are comedy and sitcom characters, which is based on the source of the comic.In the first case - it is ridiculous the characters, while the second - a situation in which they find themselves.Often these types of comedies are synthesized.
By genre modification contemporary comedy can be attributed farce - pointed, deliberate comic performance - and vaudeville having fun cheesy plot.
Drama - is also dramatic genre
main genera literature include drama, not only the genus, but also as a genre.Its spread, she received 18 -19 cc., Gradually displacing themselves tragedy.Drama characterizes the sharp conflict, but it is not global and is not as inevitable as in the tragedy.
At the heart of this work are relationship issues the individual and society.The plot of the drama, as a rule, very realistic - because of this, she became the leading genre in the repertoire of theaters, competing with the very popular nowadays comedy.
Drama has many varieties: psychological, philosophical, social, historical, love and so on. N.
What is the lyric-epic genres
In academic literature the concept of genre is treated as belonging to a particular group of literary works that are united by commoncharacteristics.Genres, as already mentioned, are formed within the genus, it becomes a real embodiment of the generic features.
But perhaps the existence of synthetic intermediate genres, which can be combined with two or even three main kinds of literature and its species.By the way, most of these "entanglements" occurs between lyric and epic, which allows some researchers to be added to the existing one more race (fourth) - lyric and epic.To him some researchers attribute the poem (poetry works have a lyrical narrative or story that develops against the historical background) and ballads (original stories in verse).
course, any literary, as well as a person interested in reading, say that the division into the main genera and species of literature - it is very difficult and doomed to inaccuracy.Many works of art combine the main features of different genres, and even childbirth.The task of the reader is not to clearly classify them and to be able to determine the ratio of each kind it started.
After the genre - this is actually not the work itself, but rather the principle of its creation.That is, in the author's intention to write a novel only genre in which the creative process of birth can greatly deform its main features and push the boundaries of species, both in its time, for example, what happened with Pushkin's "Eugene Onegin".True creativity does not tolerate limits.