Political modernization - is an essential process in the modern political life of many countries, the essence of which consists in the progressive development.There are a number of characteristic features of the phenomenon that is present in all spheres of human society.First of all, economically feature of this phenomenon is to change the mode of production and form of economy in such a way as to conform to the modern open-market system, where the dominant role played by the private sector.
In the social sphere, political modernization is evident in the formation of the equilibrium of social stratification, as well as reaching the consumer through the development of full-fledged civil society.As a result of the socio-political engagement is called the formation of a social society.
If we consider the cultural and spiritual human consciousness are signs of the modernization is to promote literacy among the population, the spread of liberal values and the multiplicity of humanitarian trends in science.Begins to form a type of autonomous and free individual, which can be many tastes and activities are not due to government requirements and public opinion.
Political modernization appears as a process based on regular changes that start in the developed countries and spread to the peripheral states.In the structure of societies that are part of this process, there are certain institutions that act as channels of political and social change.Among them is called:
1. formal education system, a reference to the subject does not live in a local family or ethnic collective, and to exist in the world system.
2. Work on the industrial production of the modern type.
3. Life in the city, meet the latest standards.
Political modernization reflects the problems associated with the development of countries in the transition conditions.Currently, this process is characterized by an increase in the ability of the political system to adapt to new examples of the social objectives and the ability to create new institutions that are designed to ensure the development of a new social system.This situation is caused by both objective (cultural and economic) and subjective (the ability of management to implement such changes) factors.
For the Russian Federation, we note that the political system of this country has always distinguished by certain features.In particular, the main of them is the dominant role of the state in all spheres of public life.
As the researchers note, political modernization in Russia today is ambivalent: the state's actions are carried out both progressive and regressive in direction.Signs of the first tendency is to expand the introduction of social groups in the political life, the weakening of the political elite and the loss of its legitimacy.As for the second, reverse direction, it is characterized by a form of the process of modernizing.Thus, methods of action remains an authoritarian state elite, because they allow only decide unilaterally.Also prevents the progressive development of the political regime, which combines features of a democratic and authoritarian government.
Political modernization in history had several types of development:
1. The original, which was peculiar to the United States and Western Europe and the transition to a different device management due to internal development.
2. Secondary inherent countries, seeks to "catch up" with the more successful of the state through the use of their experience.