Skepticism - a philosophy that its principles is the opposite of dogmatism.Obviously, this area of science and philosophy was made in view of the fact that some of the ancients have accumulated a lot of claims to already existing at the time flows.
One of the first representatives of skepticism, empiricist, in his philosophical work explained that in this area, in fact, the basic tools of thought - a comparison of the data of the mind and the senses of data, as well as the opposition of these data to each other.Skeptics questioned the very quality of thinking, especially questioned the existence and validity of dogma - the truths that should be taken for granted and should not claim for itself any evidence was.
However, skepticism as the direction of philosophical science does not consider doubt as a fundamental principle - he uses it only as a polemical weapon against supporters of dogma.The philosophy of skepticism as confesses such a principle, as a phenomenon.In addition, should clearly distinguish between skepticism everyday (everyday), scientific and philosophical.
In everyday terms skepticism can be explained as a psychological state, his situational uncertainty, doubt something.Man-skeptic always refrain categorically judgments.
scientific skepticism - is clearly and consistently built opposition to those scientists who in their judgments not based on empirical evidence.In particular, it concerns the axioms - the theory that do not require evidence.
skepticism in philosophy - this direction, the followers of which, as noted above, have expressed doubts about the existence of reliable knowledge.If it is a moderate form of the skeptics it is limited to knowledge of facts and showing restraint in respect of all hypotheses and theories.For them, philosophy, including the one they follow, is something of a scientific-sounding poetry, not science in its purest form.It is connected with this famous statement: "Philosophy - this is not science!»
skepticism in philosophy: how to develop the direction
history of skepticism is a decline, gradual depletion of nature.Originated this area in ancient Greece, the Middle Ages played a very minor role, and again revived in the era of the Reformation (at the time of recovery of Greek philosophy), when skepticism was reborn in a milder form of the new philosophy, such as subjectivism and positivism.
skepticism in philosophy: representatives
founder of the Greek school of skeptics considered Pierron, who, according to some opinions, the general was in India.In addition, the antique skepticism in response to the metaphysical dogmatism represented by such philosophers as Arcesilaus (average Academy) and the so-called "late" skeptics Agrippa, Sextus Empiricus, Enesidemom.In particular, at the time Enesidem have ten tropes (principles) skeptizizma.Six of the first - is the difference of people, state of the individual, living beings, sense organs, regulations, places, distances, phenomena and their relationships.The last four of the principle - it is mixed with the existence of the object perceived by others, relativity in general, dependence upon a certain number of perceptions, depending on the law, morals, education, religious and philosophical views.
important representatives of skepticism Srednevevekovya and modern times are David Hume and M. Montel.
skepticism in philosophy criticism
Critique of skepticism, particularly engaged Lewis Vaughn and Theodore Schick, who wrote, just skeptics do not believe that knowledge requires self confidence, that they may know that this is indeed the case.It is logical that they do not know they can.This question gave serious reason to doubt that the approval of skepticism, that knowledge necessarily requires confidence.According to the laws of logic, skepticism can not only doubt but also challenge it as a whole.But as our reality is far from being only the logical laws (in our lives place intractable and inexplicable paradoxes), such criticism preferred to listen carefully, because "there are no absolute skeptics, therefore, not necessarily that the skeptics will doubt the obvious things."