In the early 20-ies of the twentieth century British archaeological expedition uncovered the tomb of one of the Pharaohs of the New Kingdom.Until that time, the last resting place of the pharaoh Tutankhamen more than 33 centuries remained intact.Peace Pharaoh did not disturb any medieval robber or robbers are numerous tombs.The tomb was found a large amount of jewelry, jewelry, splendid specimens of art, which was famous for Ancient Egypt.The mummy was in a magnificent sarcophagus and covered the face of the ancient ruler's gold mask of King Tutankhamun.
surprising discovery occurred in 1922, an expedition of archaeologists led by Howard Carter.This Egyptologist from his youth devoted himself to the history of the Ancient World.Since 1899, Carter took part in archeological expeditions.The success he brought the discovery of burial female pharaoh Hatshepsut west of Thebes.
Working with Lord Carnarvon
Relationship with Howard Carter amateur archaeologist Lord Carnarvon helped raise funds to achieve the cherished goal - finding the untouched tomb of one of the many Egyptian rulers.Since 1914, a team led by the tandem of professional and amateur scientist-aristocrat, beginning active excavations in the Valley of the Kings.Numerous setbacks and modest findings in the ruined tombs of ancient kings cooled the enthusiasm of an aristocrat, and the scientific community at the time were skeptical about the likelihood of finding untouched burial.
In total, in search of untouched tombs of Egyptian rulers Carter spent 22 years old, but in the end his search was still rewarded.November 4, 1922 has been found non-bankruptcy tomb where the remains of King Tutankhamun.The archaeological discovery has attracted the attention of scientists from around the world, even as many questioned the existence of this ruler.
king Tutankhamun ascended the throne at the age of 8 or 9 years old.The name of an ancient ruler at first sounded like Tutankhaton that meant "Image of Aten".It is the successor of the famous rebel Pharaoh - Akhenaten.The famous heretic Pharaoh, the Egyptians forced to glorify the new god - Aton.Fans of ancient beliefs were deprived donations and forgotten.
All education of the young pharaoh was based on the worship of the image of the sun god - Aton.His teachers were Meillet and Horemhba.Meillet was the high priest at the previous power king, and Horemhba - a retired military commander.Both were unhappy with the previous ruler of Egypt, both pursuing their own goals, teaching young king.Having assumed authority over all of Egypt, Tutankhamun has not forgotten the lessons of their teachers and resolutely took the change.
Board of Tutankhamun Tutankhamun
history as the ruler of Egypt, begins after its accession in 1333 BC.e.Pharaoh dramatically changes the direction of religious and political life of the country.Henceforth his supreme god - Amon, the same as it was with his ancestors before Akhenaten;and his name sounds like Tutankhamen.City Ahetaton priests, cast down the place of worship to the deity, was destroyed and forgotten.Formally, the capital of Egypt, which has traditionally ruled the Egyptian pharaohs, were Thebes, but Tutankhamun most of his short life spent in Memphis.Naturally, the court nobles, military leaders, architects and priests tried to live close to the Pharaoh.
Even after his death the strong world would be closer to the messenger god Amun - so there was one of the cemeteries of the time - Saqqara.It is here that wished to arrange their tombs commanders, priests and former teachers of the young pharaoh.Tutankhamun restored and preserved ancient sanctuary, left many monuments.In the sanctuary of Luxor finalize colonnade, built in honor of Amenhotep III, completed Nubian temple glorifying this ruler.There was also carried out a number of military campaigns in Nubia and Lower Egypt, some of them have been successfully completed.Perhaps Tutankhamun became famous through the centuries to be the greatest ruler, but fate took him less than ten years of the reign.In the end, his government was no different from the activities of other pharaohs.Even the radical change of the supreme god was not something out of the ordinary.Pharaoh died at a very young age, at the time of his death he was not quite 19 years old.As befits a true ruler of Egypt, the king to take care of his own house - the pyramid of Tutankhamen was built during his lifetime.
Tomb of Tutankhamun
During the existence of the Egyptian Valley of the Kings for their architects built 65 tombs of the pharaohs.There was also built and the pyramid of Tutankhamen.Building technology tombs for 500 years, has not changed.In the interior of the rock hollowed steps, leaving the ground to a depth of 200 m, which led to the burial chamber.In the middle of the central grotto set the sarcophagus in which one invested in a three coffins.The last and placed the body of the pharaoh.The outer coffin was made of gilded wood, on which were pictures of vulture and cobra.These symbols represented the North and the South of Egypt.Images of animals are still surprised fine work and rich decor.Each feather on the wings of a vulture, each scale on the hood of a cobra attached great importance, all the details have been carefully made by unknown masters.
second coffin was decorated with colored glass.He played the role of intermediary between the world of the living and the world of the dead.The third coffin, in which lay the body of Tutankhamun, was made from a sheet of pure gold.The remains of the governor were placed in fine linen, and covered his face funerary mask of Tutankhamun.A lot of things that were in the "Golden Abode" remained timeless and have survived almost completely intact.Items from the tomb of Tutankhamun, surrounding the body of the deceased, surprised by its luxury and wealth, each of these works of art was to make life easier for the ruler in the kingdom of the dead.
mystery of the death
However, not life and reign ruler of Egypt at that time was interested scientists.It is much more fun to find a reason for such an early death.It has been several hypotheses to explain the posthumous mystery of Tutankhamun.His death was profitable regent Ay who reigned over Egypt after the death of 19-year-old ruler.Tutankhamun disliked priests overthrown Aton, who lost their cities and temples.Among the possible causes of death were specified suffocation, head injury or poisoning.But a 2005 study showed that head trauma was applied to Pharaoh after his death, most likely, it was received as a result of mummification of the body of the ruler.One by one rejects the hypothesis of a violent death, discover new details of the short life of the young pharaoh.
great ruler of Egypt, according to scientists, has been chronically ill young man who had a history of several genetic variations that are suffering, and other Egyptian pharaohs of this dynasty.Tutankhamen could not move normally, it is hampered by a congenital limp and incomplete number of toes on the right foot.Finally, a team of researchers has identified the true cause of death ruler of Egypt.She turned out to be a microscopic bacillus plasmodium falciparum, causes severe forms of malaria.Infection has been fatal for the king, whose body has been weakened by congenital ailments and trauma caused by a blow or a fall from a horse.
Opening Remarks Howard Carter talking about long years of searching for the slightest mention of the Valley of the Kings.For three millennia pyramid covered with sand, the country changed shape, even change the terrain of ancient country called Egypt.Tutankhamun disappeared behind the veil of history, so that many scholars even doubted its existence.Only many years after the beginning of the excavations in the Valley of the Kings, under the house of one of the workers noticed Carter steps leading down.Excavations have discovered the tomb of the king, is not disturbed nor plunderers or natural disasters.Apparently, the builders to erect a tomb for the pharaoh later time, carefully filled the entrance to the tomb of Tutankhamun.February 16, 1923 Carter opened the "Golden Abode" - direct faraona.V resting place of the tomb of an ancient ruler turned out more than three thousand fashion jewelry and works of art created by the ancient Egyptian craftsmen.Among the items were found, and the bed, covered with sheets of pure gold, and gold-plated war chariots, models of ships and chests with numerous decorations.
mummy pharaoh ruler
Body found only in the third in a row coffin.Mummy efforts ancient pogrebalschikov was wrapped in linen cloths fine linen.The top cover was decorated with applique embroidered with the image of the golden hands.Pharaoh as if holding a scepter and a whip - the ancient symbols of the ruler.Between linen cloths were a lot of jewelry and personal items of Pharaoh, and transverse bands of pure gold, embossed with ancient prayers and images from the book of the dead.When swaddling used now lost aromatic resin compositions that thirty centuries firmly glued funeral covers the body of the mummy.
But the most surprising finding was the mask of Tutankhamen, covering his face.The eyes of archaeologists presented itself amazing creation of the ancient masters.This subject deserves a separate description is true.Masks were rulers of Egypt are quite typical for the time.But none of the funeral mask did not see our contemporaries.The blame for this grave robbers who plundered the ancient tombs of thousands of years.It is because of the black archeologists modern Egyptology check their hypotheses and assumptions that are based on only a few are not plundered an ancient tomb.And that has become increasingly important discovery Carter untouched ancient burial site.
mask of Pharaoh Tutankhamen's golden mask covered his head and upper body of the ruler.The total weight of it was 11.26 kg.This ornament with perfect precision is attached to the upper part of the body and to the person of the ruler of Egypt.The mask depicts the face of the pharaoh with big-eyed, summing antimony eyes themselves are made of obsidian.This is an amazing piece of art is made of thick sheet of gold and decorated with unique ornaments.Shawl, eyebrows and eyelids artfully instructed dark blue glass necklace resting on the chest of the mummy, it was decorated with semiprecious stones.Gold Mask of Tutankhamun thanks to special aromatic resin was tightly adhered to the face of the mummy.It took a long and painstaking work to separate the unique thing without spoiling its beauty.And thanks to the art of the ancient masters of modern anthropologists were able to determine with reasonable certainty the facial features of an ancient pharaoh.
amazing archeological find was widely publicized in the press and give rise to various pseudo-scientific discussions and assumptions.Name of Tutankhamun became widely known, and caused a surge of interest in the study of the past of Egypt and the ancient world as a whole.
Golden Mask of Tutankhamen still do not have a certain market value.It is the oldest decoration is a tremendous historical, cultural and jewelry worth.In a sense, the mask of Tutankhamun and is a symbol of the ancient and modern Egypt, the main exhibit of the National Museum in Cairo.She repeatedly tried to steal the last attempt was made in 2011 during the so-called Egyptian spring.Modern inhabitants of Egypt belong to the mask as a talisman, ancient forces that guard the secrets of Tutankhamen more than thirty centuries.Egyptians are hoping that their ancient country soon again will be one of the greatest countries in the world, and the mask of Tutankhamun them in this will definitely help.