development of trade - a major source of primary accumulation of capital of merchants and usurers for the formation of high-grade money market.In the development of trade and to facilitate conduct of trade there were various forms of association of traders.Merchants Association of German cities could have different names, depending on the purpose for which the Union was created.Such an association could pursue different objectives.
Trade in Northern Europe
North Europe trade in fish, furs, wood, beer, amber and other goods, its common areas.The trade involved countries such as the Principality of Polotsk, the north-eastern parts of Russia, Novgorod Republic, Rzeczpospolita, the Kingdom of Germany, Brabant, northern France and England, the Scandinavian countries.Major trading transactions were at the fairs.But tight feudal conditions did not contribute to the establishment of trade and the various taxes and exorbitant tolls significantly complicate foreign trade.Intense market relations demanded mechanisms of successful sales and secure logistics and, hence, organizations that could fulfill these requirements.Special royal decrees allowed a large merchants and traders associations to offer their goods on preferential terms.Gradually, private trade superseded the various forms of association of merchants.By necessity arose in Germany and other European settlements of various trade associations, known to us under names such as guild convoy Hansa.
Guild Guild is the union of merchants German cities on joint professional interests.Large cities of Northern Europe has a membership of several dozen guilds.Each of them had their status, to set prices for their products, and the right to protect their interests in the guild had a medieval merchant.Trading companies in their activities guided by the Charter, each of them was under the supervision of his patron, had its own patron saint.Guild members had their representation in the city government to protect its own commercial interests.
Convoy Convoy - this is a temporary association of unions merchants to safeguard the cargo transported by sea.Convoys were formed on the basis of a mutual system.Every trader makes a certain amount of chartered vessels and security services.
Association of German cities, but rather a lot of them, soon began to form associations between different cities - not only in Germany but also its trading partners.By the mid-13th century, there is a trade and political union of merchants North-European cities.In the chronicles it is known as Malaya Ganza.This form of trade relations proved to be extremely attractive, and the beginning of the 15th century, the Hanseatic League has around 170 European cities.What kind?Merchants Association of German cities had offices in Gdansk, Riga, Lvov, Veliky Novgorod, and create multiple branches to streamline trade relations.The city is considered a leading Lubeck, who led the Vendian Hansa and later Hamburg.Up until the early 17th century Vendian Hansa had the highest turnover in the whole of Northern Europe.The second value is considered Hansa Paris.
privileges merchants of the Hanseatic League merchants
Association of German cities offer their participants a benefit that traders sought to become members of the union during that whatever the cost, despite the rather large regular fees.Membership Hanse ensured that:
- goods belonging to the Hanseatic merchant will not be repossessed duties and taxes will not be taken away for debts to other individuals;
- merchants had no right to arrest for crimes committed in other cities, also partially or completely forbidden to confiscate the goods for military purposes;
- traders are not responsible for the actions of partners;Each of them was personally responsible for the quality and delivery of goods, and everyone had the right to a fair price;
- the property of the deceased merchant passed his executor;authorities had no right to take the goods and other property of the deceased trader;
- members of the Hanseatic League used the protectorate of the local authorities, they were abolished some taxes and customs duties;
- members of the Hanseatic League had the right to protection from violence and looting by the feudal lords, pirates and local authorities.
Thus, the Hanseatic League stimulated the development of trade relations developed mechanisms to protect traders and countersigned economic ties between European nations.