people since ancient times tried to understand how the world around them.Through research, we looked into the living beings and to draw conclusions.So kopilsya theoretical material, which became the basis for many sciences.
The methods they used were limited mostly to observation and experiment.However, it quickly became obvious that the body of knowledge will be filled only half, if not come up with something more sophisticated, technologically advanced devices.Such that will look inside, to open and examine the underlying mechanisms of the device features various objects and living beings.
Methods of study in biology
The main are the following:
- historical method.
Most of them require the intervention of new technical devices, which would allow to get a larger image size many times.That is, to put it simply, you should use various magnifying devices.That is why the need for their construction was evident.
It is the only way people could understand how vital processes such tiny creatures like protozoa and bacteria, microscopic fungi, lichens and other organisms.
Modern varieties of devices
Among a variety of technical designs magnifying devices occupy a special place.After all, without them to get to the truth and to prove this or that theory is difficult, especially when it comes to the microcosm.
Modern technology offers the following types of such devices:
1. Magnifiers.The structure of the magnification of this type is quite simple, so among the analog of the action they appeared first.
2. microscopes.Today there are several varieties:
- optical or light;
- scanning probe;
- differential interferon-contrast.
Each is widely used not only in the biological sciences, but also in chemistry, physics, space research, genetic engineering, molecular genetics, and so on.
history of magnification
course, this elegant variety and perfection of these devices did not come immediately.The most complex designs, allowing to intervene even in the wave and particle processes, appeared only in the XX-XXI centuries.
history of the emergence and development of instruments to increase its roots in the mists of time.So, if we talk about loops, the excavations have revealed that the first such devices were among the Egyptians long before our era.They were made of rock crystal and so skillfully sharpened that allowed an increase up to 1500 times!
Later they began to manufacture glass lenses, and through them to consider the interests of microscopic objects.It was not until the XVI century.Then the great explorer Galileo constructed his first pipe, which when unfolded reminded microscope and give rise to almost 300 times.It was the progenitor of the modern microscope.
Still later, in the second half of the XVII century Torah scholar was making small round magnifying glass.They allow us to consider already at 1,500 times magnification.The big breakthrough in the development of microscopic steel flatware, designed by Antoni van Leeuwenhoek.He let the party microscopes, which gave a sufficient magnification so you can see the cellular structure and the world of microorganisms.
Ever since magnifying devices (magnifying glass, microscope) have become an integral part of virtually all types of research in biological and other sciences.The modern variety of technical devices, owes its existence to people with such names as:
- Ernst Abbe.
- R. Richter and others.
structure magnifying devices: magnifier
What are these devices and how they work?Magnifiers - a magnifying glass, microscope - basically have, in principle, the same structure.The action is based on the use of special glasses - lenses.
magnification lens is a convex lens which is framed by a special outer frame - a frame.The lens itself - a special optical glass having bilateral bulge.The frame can be either:
magnifying devices such as magnifying glasses, provide images of a 25-fold amount.Of course, there are different on the indicator device.Some magnifiers give rise to 2 times, and more modernized and committed - even 30.
What are the magnifying glass?
Main place of using a magnifying glass - biology lesson.Magnifying devices such plan allows smaller structures to consider the structure of plants and animals.May be used different variants of products.
- Magnifier tripod - a device in which the lens is fixed in a special frame on a tripod for ease of use.
- instrument with a handle.In this embodiment, the frame is built in a small comfortable handle, with which you can adjust the image quality approaching or removing the device.
- Magnifier with backlight and built-in compass.This is useful for field work in the taiga forest areas.The presence of diode lamps enable to observe even at night.
- pocket magnifier option to fold and cover with lid.Very convenient option for permanent wear with them.
also very common combination between these options: tripod with light, pocket or on a cord with a handle and so on.
microscope - magnification
Which device has the prodmet?Today schoolwork Use only magnifying devices: a magnifying glass, microscope.With the structure, work and variation of the first device we've already figured out.However, to explore the deeper processes that occur in the cells, examining the bacterial composition of the water and so on, magnifying magnifying glass capacity are clearly inadequate.
In this case, the main working tool becomes a microscope, most of the normal, light or optical.Consider some of the structural part of it.
- basis of the whole structure - a tripod.It is an element of a curved shape, which carries the rest of the instrument.His broad base - this is what keeps all of the microscope as a whole and making it stable fixed in an upright position.
- Mirror, which is attached to a tripod to the bottom of the device.It is necessary to capture sunlight and directing the beam onto the sample stage.It is fixed on both sides of the movable joints, which facilitates the process of setting light.
- The stage - still attached to the tripod design, often round or rectangular shape, equipped with metal fixers.That it is established analyzed slides that both sides clearly recorded and saves immobility.
- optic tube that ends on one side eyepiece and on the other - different zoom lenses.Also, it is securely attached to a tripod.
- Lenses are located immediately above the stage and serve to focus and zoom.In most cases, three of them, each of them can move and lock according to need.
- eyepiece tube is the pinnacle of a visual, and it is designed for direct observation of the object.Last
- important part you have all the magnifying devices of this kind - the macro and microscrews.They serve to adjust the movement of the visual tuning hook to the best picture quality.
It is obvious that the structure of the microscope is not too difficult.However, this is characteristic only for the optical models.The average increase, which is capable of giving a light microscope, - no more than 300 times.
If we talk about contemporary design, giving an increase of thousands of times, their structure is much more complicated.
What are the microscopes are used and where?
There are different types of microscopes.The simplest of them, light or optical, makes the bulk of the designs for use by students.Magnifying glass and a microscope - the most acceptable magnifying devices.Grade 6 (biology - a school subject in the classroom by using these objects) assumes familiarity with the device, the operating principle of these devices.
However, students should give an idea about the types of microscopes, they work with scientists, physicists, chemists, biologists, astronomers, and so on.There you can select 5 main, they have been listed above.Laser and electronic devices can produce images in hundreds of thousands of times greater than the true dimensions.This allows you to peek inside even the smallest particles and make a lot of discoveries in various fields of science and technology.
cooking preparations for the microscope
For this purpose, the following elements:
- the cover piece of glass;
- dissecting needle;
- filter paper;
If you want to consider, such as onion skin, you should carefully the prepared her needle and a thin plenochki put on a glass slide.Put in need preformed pipetted drop of water.On top of the drug is covered with a thin piece of glass coating and firmly pressed.Excess liquid is removed by touching the filter paper.It should be carefully monitored, to a cover slip was no air bubbles, otherwise the microscope will be visible only to them.
Factory drugs or fixed
addition to the manufacture of "live" agents, schools are often used ready-made, fixed.They painted more informative and rich, as are made by special technology with a high degree of naturalness.On them you can master the microstructure of all the known elements of the structure of both animals and plants.In addition, fixed products offer the opportunity to study the bacteria, microscopic fungi, protozoa other small creatures.
Learning magnification school
As we noted above, the school is required to study the magnifying devices.Grade 6 - is beginning to learn the principle of work, the foundations of the structure of the instrument.
Also during this period laid the ability to set their own specimen on the stage, catching the light and view the image, achieving high definition in setting up.At subsequent stages of education children are confident using microscopes and magnifying glasses for a variety of research, as a fully owned technology devices use.
Laboratory work at the school, using light microscopes
There are actually quite a lot.Every teacher decides what types of work should be carried out.It all depends on the amount of equipment and its performance.The most common laboratory tests that require the use of magnifying devices are as follows:
- study of the structure of plant leaves.
- study of the plant transpiration.The structure of the stomata.
- hyphae of fungi.
- Disputes plants their structure.
- study of the internal composition of the cell, and others.