significant part of the modern world's population lives in cities.However, few people think about the territory on which his house stands.But the land for residential development may be not in every place.Presented below is the material for the most complete understanding of the issue.
residential areas: the definition of
Traditionally, before you start to study a particular issue, you must thoroughly familiarize yourself with the terminology used therein.Thus, residential areas - is land that can be used to accommodate public, residential and recreational areas, as well as some of the individual elements of the transport and engineering infrastructure.In addition, here, and may include other objects, economic activities and the allocation of which do not require protective and sanitary zones because of their impact.However, we must also bear in mind that residential areas - a term relating only to territories within urban settlements and cities directly.Thus, this definition does not apply, for example, to the villages.
residential areas of the city takes on average about 60% of the total.Based on the definitions in it can be placed various industrial, recreational and community facilities.Organization of such areas has clearly defined direction: the establishment of efficient and most convenient conditions for the execution of domestic and social needs of the population.This, in turn, helps to minimize time costs and increase the availability of all kinds of service outlets, entertainment facilities and recreation.
structure implies a residential area of objects such as residential areas (neighborhoods, districts);roads and streets;green spaces intended for public use (parks, squares, gardens);Lots of public, administrative and cultural institutions.Thus, a full and balanced unit of human social life becomes a residential area, which encompasses a variety of institutions both batch and daily cultural and community service people.Residential areas intended for mutual connection of the city with each other as well as with the industrial quarters of the city center and points of distribution and stopping external transport, green spaces and so on.In addition to all of the above, an important element is the system of pedestrian paths.After all, it is thanks to them that citizens can quickly get to the places that interest them visit mass located within the area in question.Therefore, for security purposes need to have these avenues so that they have a minimum number of intersections with the main streets.
Currently, all institutions of cultural and personal services are characterized by varying degrees of frequency of visits.Accordingly, the following classification has been developed, according to which there are three steps.Let us consider each of these in more detail.
Its members include devices and institutions who visited daily by a large number of residents.These residential areas - is kindergartens, schools, grocery stores and points of sale of essential goods, cafes, pharmacies, the objects of consumer services.It is important to note that the availability of the previously mentioned places is within 350-500 meters.
This category has traditionally include institutions that are visited with a certain periodicity.These include libraries, cinemas, clubs, sports centers, health organizations, and other points of contact.Radius availability in this case is taken equal to 1000-1200 meters.This allows the average walking speed to get to their destination in 15-20 minutes, without using transportation means.
The last group consists of items so-called episodic use.This means that residents visit these places less than the establishment described earlier.These residential areas - this museums, theaters, shopping and office buildings, concert halls, specialized medical centers, municipal sports facilities.
When planning and follow-Residential District uses multiple criteria.Some of them are the following major technical and economic indicators:
1. density housing (net and gross).It is characterized by the total number of square meters of inhabited areas, which account for one hectare area.
2. Building density residential area (gross and net).Is the ratio as a percentage of the area that is occupied by buildings, directly to the inhabited building.It does not take into account the territory involved by the organization of sports fields, schools and kindergartens, as well as buildings of cultural and economic nature.
3. The density of settlement (net and gross).Specifies the number of inhabitants per 1 ha of the district under consideration.It should also be noted that the general characteristic expresses the density of population in relation to all the so-called residential area of the district.This ratio is the number of people living there to one hectare reclaimed area.With regard to the small towns of the whole area referred to residential area, which, in turn, divided into districts.Large metropolitan areas may consist of an entire system of social and administrative centers and sub-centers.Their main task is to maintain efficient buildings, which are the most remote from the center of the city.
Classification of building
When planning districts need to consider many factors.For example, the estimated number of population, development of zoning schemes, placement service buildings, the design and location of houses Directions.
Let us consider the last criterion.Depending on the location of residential buildings to each other, there are four main areas of development: perimeter, lowercase, and mixed group.The first type is characterized by the arrangement of the long sides of the houses along the street, which is limited to the area.The distinguishing feature of this area - the simplicity of the architectural filling.However, there are several drawbacks: poor communication yards and streets, unfavorable Orientation low ventilated.In turn, the building stands out mostly lowercase parallel placement of buildings in relation to each other.This allows you to put each of them in the same conditions.However, the construction suffers architectural street.Group type of building used if different districts of considerable size (about 10 hectares).Location of houses in such situations performed in separate groups, within each of which forms a courtyard.Such an arrangement has many advantages: excellent ventilated, expressiveness and variety of architectural simplicity.