Wicca - is one of the new religion, which was founded in the middle of the XX century in England.By their spiritual orientation and ranked among the followers of religious studies to the Western European neo-paganism of the sample.The fact that Wicca is a religion, its adherents differ and how it is practiced, will be discussed in this article.
popularity this young religion acquired in 1954, thanks to its apostle, occultist and magician Gerald Gardner.According to legend, he told the world he was initiated into the mysteries of an ancient pagan teachings surviving member of the underground in Europe witchcraft cult.This tradition, according to Gardner, is a direct descendant of European pre-Christian beliefs, based on the worship of the forces of nature, personified in the image of the Mother Goddess and Father God.From the point of view of history, archeology and anthropology of these statements are quite questionable, so is officially considered that religion Wicca was founded no earlier than 20 years of XX century.It really reflects some features of archaic matriarchal beliefs, but by its nature is, rather, an attempt to realize their partial reconstruction, followed by a synthesis based on the concepts of modern neo-paganism.Thus, the theory is not supported by direct heredity serious scientific arguments.
necessary to immediately make a correction on the question of who created the religion of Wicca.Initially, this word means tradition opponent Gardner named Charles Cardella, while Gardnerian doctrine was called simply "magic."However, since the 60s the name "Wiccans" and began to refer to the followers of Gardner, and later to all other similar and derived from its tradition.Thus, it can be argued that today under the name of religion, "Wicca" is meant several more or less similar religious and magical movements.Below, we will not deal with identity and characteristics of each of them, because a lot of them, and is constantly creating new forms of Wiccan theory and practice.Plus, a good half-Wiccans are adherents of eclectics own statements, not only successfully combines elements of various vnutrivikkanskih apart, and combine them with other religions, so that in the world there are so-called Christian, Jewish and Muslim even Wicca.Instead, we talk about general religious postulates, attitudes and points of intersection in the Wiccan practice of supporters of different denominations.
fundamental basis of Wiccan spirituality is the postulation of two divine principles - male and female, who are represented in the image of God and the Goddess.Different traditions have different views on what some of these roles has priority over the other.Some worship the Goddess only, others by adhering to the above diteisticheskoy position worship Goddess slightly higher than God.Others observe equality, whereas men prefer the fourth incarnation.Recently, however, an extremely rare type of Wiccans.This is probably due to the fact that the patriarchal religions warehouse with exaggerated worship of masculinity is very much in paganism and in the monotheistic traditions.Wicca also offers an alternative path, characterized by a special attention to femininity that draws together and consolidates fans matriarchal cults and spirituality in a specific line of honoring the Mother Goddess.
Therefore Wiccans especially sensitive to everything that concerns the archaic cultures that worshiped the divine mother, whether it be the Great Mother, Mother Earth, and so on. D. Later developed pantheon of pagan gods, followers of Wicca believe the aspects particular manifestation of the primordialdual divinity.According to this theory, all the pagan goddess essences are single Goddess, and all the gods - subsistence of God.
also characteristic that, reviving prehistoric and historic pagan cults, Wiccans endow his property Goddess trinity, often interpreted in the context of bundles of "maiden, mother, crone."Obviously, this concept reflects the relationship of the divine mother figure with lunar cycles.A similar picture we see in the Greco-Roman, some Eastern, Celtic beliefs.
As for God, it correlated with the horned god of the Europeans, the god-hunter Celtic and other tribes that inhabited Europe in the pre-Christian era.Wiccans (at least not among the followers of the Christian and, in general, well, Abrahamic Wicca) insist that identify God and God monotheists Wiccans inadmissible, as neo-pagan religion of Wicca recognizes no transcendent all-powerful deity and creator of the world.The extreme degree of immanence of the Goddess and God - is an integral part of Wiccan theology.Thus, in the theological mainstream Wicca is pantheism, postulates two divine principles, sometimes seen in a dualistic way.
However Wiccan sources you can find mention of the supreme deity, standing on the differentiation of the God-Goddess.In practice, it is, of course, has received little attention.But, theoretically, it still recognizes the religion of Wicca.Its creator, Gerald Gardner himself said about this creature, claiming that his name remains unknown, and it is above all other gods.Others called him Draytenom ("God" from the Old English) or the One.However, a radical movement matriarchal Wiccans (Dianic and some others) deny the existence of this higher principle, arguing that absolute all enclosed in a figure of the Mother Goddess.
That is true about Wicca religion on all its movements, so that's what they all profess metempsychosis ie reincarnation.In particular, of course, Wiccans may differ in their views, but on the whole reincarnation - is an integral part of their faith.According to the most widespread theory, the human soul after death is in the so-called country of eternal summer in preparation for the next incarnation.Unlike the Abrahamic religions, Wiccans do not look for any other, the kingdom of heaven or paradise.And unlike Dharmic teachings, do not try to break free from samsara and do not want to interrupt the chain of rebirth in order to merge with some Absolute.In this sense, religion is Wicca - it is very natural life-affirming religion, concentrated entirely on this world and finding in him the ultimate meaning.Therefore, in practice the adherents of this doctrine do not show any particular interest to the other world.Of course, many Wiccans engage in spiritualism, but, first of all, not all Wiccan authorities approve it, and secondly, it is done only in the magic and not soteriological context.
Religion, we are talking about - is not just a spiritual teaching.It involves an intense magical work as regards magic as a religious rite, a kind of service to God and the Goddess.Therefore, it is fair to claim that the religion of witches.Wicca, in fact, from the Old English dialect means roughly what today is meant by the word "witchcraft."
course, not necessarily to practice magic, to have the right to consider themselves Wiccan.Simply divide the basic doctrinal concepts of this religion in its own way to express their reverence for God and Goddess in prayer and personal rituals.But on the other hand, in this way are one, because substantial part of this religion without magic content is very poor: there is no general worship or sacred places, no scripture, no clergy, no sacraments.Of course there are festivals that celebrate all Wiccans, but again, this by itself is not enough to live a full spiritual life.In addition, most of the festive ritual is seen as a magical effect, and the coven (community), the default is a community of practicing witch.Therefore religion Wicca is almost always paired with magical practices, and its adherents sincerely consider themselves witches and warlocks.
universally accepted Wiccan rituals does not exist - each Wiccan Wiccan coven or create their own rituals based on personal tastes, attitudes and preferences.The only thing you can say is something that confined some Wiccan ceremony.Firstly, it's Sabbaths and Esbats, which will be discussed below.Secondly, it is the practice of initiation or self-dedication to tradition.In the most conservative covens follow a three-part system of initiation.Third, there are rituals and vikkaninga hendfastinga.The first one is the ceremony in which the newborn are God and Goddess in order to ensure the protection of their baby.Vikkaning not an initiation into the religion, and therefore not the same as baptism in Christianity.Hendfasting - a Wiccan ritual of marriage.That's all I can say about this, because specific descriptions of each Wiccan rituals kept secret, trusting only their personal Book of Shadows - a collection of spells, ceremonies, and similar information.
main Wicca witchcraft traditions rooted in ancient rituals of the agricultural cycle.In a more specific questions based on the magic provided by the European witchcraft, four elements, manipulating that a witch or sorcerer produces the desired changes in the physical world.This distinguishes the western and northern magic from the east, where the magician just called him the right spirit, which does all the work.However, as already mentioned, the Wicca religion often gets in the face of the eclectic nature of his followers, who are actively experimenting with different traditions, including African, Australian, Indian, Tibetan and shamanic practices.The root basis of all magical work in this system is the postulate of the four elements, known for the works of the classics (fire, earth, water, air) and the spirit.Elements can be controlled by willpower, causing the desired changes on the physical and mental level.This is magic.Wicca ambiguously refers to differentiation of magic into black and white, although earlier this division held by many authorities movement.At the same time denied itself the attribution of black evil.But that is evil, Wiccans have not yet been worked out more or less intelligible concept.However, they have their own moral values, which will be mentioned below.
Wicca, as mentioned above, has no sacred, inspired writings.However, there are more or less respected for its adherents texts, among which there is also a simple but succinct rule: "If your actions do not cause harm to anyone, then do what you want."This slogan serves as a guide in life, which is used by every witch.Wicca lacks, however, a clear teachings about who and what is included in the circle of the "nobody".Does it include only people or animals, including insects?A plant?Or how to cope with this setting Wiccan, it has called for the war?Whether this limitation is removed if necessary self-defense?And is it permissible to revenge?To these questions there is no unequivocal answer.But there is another pretty popular text called Covenant of the Goddess.He wrote Doreen Valiente, and it deals with the eight qualities, which should seek to witch: joy, honor, respect, humanity, strength, beauty, power and compassion.
third very popular Wiccan moral principle is the so-called law of triple retribution, according to which all would have made any man, he will return to the treble.Thus, the actions are not determined by the commandments Wiccan deities, and the fact that Christianity is called the Golden Rule: "Do not do to others what you yourself do not desire."
on sexual Wiccans adhere not puritanical views postulating the freedom (conjugate, however, the responsibility of) a person in this matter.Among other things, some Wiccans practice and sexual magic, which often involves group rituals.Wicca refers to the controversial issue of homosexuality.Conservatives, after the founder, Gerald Gardner, refer to this negatively, arguing that such a relationship angers the goddess.On the other hand, most Wiccans quite tolerant to gays or lesbians, and does not impose on the Wiccans one of them any sexual restrictions.Some feminist currents of Wicca, for example, traditionally high percentage of lesbians.
Wiccans have adopted many ancient symbols from different cultures.However, there is most characteristic and, so to say, signs that distinguish, for example, Wiccan headstone.First - this is a direct pentagram means harmony of the elements under the leadership of the spirit.Second - it is a symbol of the moon, which is indicated by the Goddess.Wicca is using this as a Greek standard.Thus, for example, depicted the Greek moon goddess.Also represents the Great Mother and Wicca.Photos of this mark is given below.
Wicca is inconceivable without its traditional eight holidays.They all have an ancient pre-Christian origin and are focused on the changing seasons as they relate to agricultural work.Calendar of dates referred to in Wicca wheel year.
four of the eight events are considered great.They are identical to ancient Celtic celebration and represent the changing seasons.Another four - days of spring and autumn equinox and winter and summer solstice.All eight are called Sabbats.Here they are: Samhain, Yule, Imbolc, Ostara, Beltane, Litha, Lammas and Mabon.
There is in addition to, even as the notion of "Esbats."The latter are the full moon and new moon sometimes, which also considered the special festive time.
Wicca religion in Russia
In our country everything is known to come late.And if the US Wiccan symbol was added to the official list of emblems of religion in 1985, in Russia Wicca just beginning to develop.Thus, the first coven have appeared only in 2011 in Udmurtia.However, it was the first official registration Wiccan community.Adherents it is, of course, there were before, but in very limited quantities.Today, thanks to the Internet and the trends of culture, Wicca in Russia is growing rapidly, mainly due to young people.Currently, there are Wiccans Union of Russia, there are several other organized in Moscow and St. Petersburg groups.The rapidly growing number of covens, and even more - the number of single practitioners.Among other things between them have seen division and confrontation on various issues, which in itself represents a significant influence and a relative of numerous representatives of Wicca in Russia.