The heroic defense of Odessa (1941)

Soon humanity will celebrate the seventieth anniversary of the end of World War II.Particularly significant is the date for the residents of the former Soviet Union, whose grandparents on the front and in the rear did everything to hasten the day of the Great Victory.Do not erase from human memory the truth about the disaster that has brought humanity fascism, about the heroism of the heroes who saved the world from the "brown plague".For example, will never be forgotten defense of Odessa (1941).She went into the books of military history as one of the most successful models such operations.

defense of Odessa in the first year of the Great Patriotic War: the beginning

As you know, the Soviet Union was suddenly attacked by the Nazi bloc countries June 22, 1941, and after only three days, along with others, the rate has been formed the Southern Front.Against him in the territory of a length of more than seven hundred kilometers from the city of Odessa to Lipkany Romanian troops fought.Despite the success of the Southern Front, in the first two months of the war it became necessary to retreat to the east of its parts.The fact that our neighbors in the northwest of the situation was not the best, and it was a good chance to get into the environment.Fifth August fighting began to take place already on the outskirts of Odessa, and after a week of military units defending the city were completely cut off from the main forces of the Southern Front, as the Romanian-German troops were able to get around the city from the east and take it to the encirclement.

parts involved in the fighting on both warring sides

At the time when the city was completely surrounded by units of the Romanian Army and the Wehrmacht, there were parts of a single maritime Army, commanded by Lieutenant-GeneralGeorge P. Safronov, the troops of the Black Sea Fleet and Odessa naval base, as well as militia, composed of the citizens themselves.A total of defending forces at the beginning of August 1941 amounted to 34.5 thousand people, and at the end of September - about 86 thousand soldiers and militia.With regard to the number of the Romanian army, commanded by Nikolai Chuperka, in its composition in the siege of Odessa attended by 340 thousand soldiers and officers.

Odessa besieged

ninth of August the rate was decided to organize the defense area (SPA) under the command of Rear Admiral Gabriel V. Zhukov, which consisted of the following areas:

  • Fontanka.
  • his cap.
  • Kovalenko.
  • Otradovki.
  • Pervomaisk.
  • Belyaevka.
  • lighthouse.
  • Carolino Bugaz.

Immediately thereafter, work began on the construction of fortifications, as well as the formation of militias from among the citizens of Odessa, which was issued a combat weapon.In addition, the end of August to help the defenders of Odessa Black Sea Fleet command has allocated 2.4 thousand people, and on September 15 in the city of Novorossiysk was transferred the 157th Infantry Division.It is because of such strong support manpower territorial defense of Odessa and has not been broken.

defenders of the city, not only held the line against the enemy, but also held a series of successful offensives.In particular, in the eastern sector of defense in mid-September, he was ejected and landed Grigorievsky air and sea assault and released villages Chabanka, Old and New Dofinovki.He was stopped shelling the port of Odessa and its waters, and the state all along the line is much stabilized.


defense of Odessa was shot October 16, 1941, and the city was put Romanian troops.The reason was strategic considerations rate, which considered that the situation at that time in the Crimean direction, it is better to make a transfer of troops trapped in the city by the sea in Sevastopol.

general in the history of warfare there are few examples of successful completion of operations on withdrawal of troops from the line of contact with the enemy with minimum losses and maintaining their combat capability.One of these is the evacuation of parts, carried out the defense of Odessa, which are then written the Soviet press, "left the city without tarnishing his honor."

occupation and victims

defense of Odessa and Sevastopol has cost the Soviet army, which in the years of the Great Patriotic War were the representatives of all the peoples living in the Soviet Union, including Ukrainians, thousands of lives.There were many victims among the civilian population.In particular, immediately after it has been removed the defense of Odessa (1941), there were carried out mass executions.Particularly serious was the loss of the Jewish minority in relation to which the Romanian occupation forces carried out a policy of total destruction.Moreover, in the city were brought prisoners of war, which, together with the Soviet workers and those who could not prove his innocence to the "inferior race", first held in detention in the former gunpowder store, and then shot and burned alive with gasoline poured over the building.


expulsion of the invaders from Odessa began on April 9, 1944 in the framework of a military operation conducted by the troops of the Third Ukrainian Front, commanded by Army General Rodion Malinovsky.The next day, in the morning, the city was entirely under the control of the Red Army, which continued the successful offensive in the direction of the Dniester.

medal "For the Defense of Odessa": who is assigned

The award was established in December 1942.It was intended to honor servicemen and members of the civilian population to take part in the defense of Odessa during the period from 5 August to 16 October 1941.It is usually worn on the left breast, right medal "For Defense of Moscow", if any.

How does Medal

This award is made of stainless steel or brass in the form of a circle with a diameter of 3.2 centimeters.The obverse depicts the figure of a Red and Red Army with arms on the background of the coast on which stands the lighthouse tower.Directly above them the inscription "USSR", and even higher at the edge of the circle is written in raised letters the phrase "For the Defence of Odessa", concluded between the two tiny stars.The lower part of the obverse is decorated with a laurel wreath, intertwined with ribbons.As for the reverse, that it made the traditional label for the Soviet awards during the Great Patriotic War - "For Our Soviet Motherland", and above it are engraved the hammer and sickle.The medal "For the Defense of Odessa" by the ring and ear joins the board in the form of an elongated pentagon, covered with silk two-tone striped ribbon (three blue and two green stripes of equal width).According to the 1985, this award was presented to thirty thousand soldiers of the Red Army, soldiers of the Navy and the NKVD troops and civilians.


heroic defense of Odessa went down in history as one of the best examples of patriotism of the Soviet people.In memory of those who sacrificed their lives defending the city from the blue sea, in 1975 in the place where at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War were located position of 411th coastal battery was opened memorial.The complex is an exhibition of military equipment in the form of sculptural shapes women grieving over the body of the deceased, as well as the stele "Katyusha".In addition, the memorial built a church of St. George.

Another massive structure designed to serve as a perpetual reminder of the heroism of the heroes who underwent the heroic defense of Odessa in the first year of the Great Patriotic War - a "belt of Fame", a 11 monuments.They were built on the ground where there were the most fierce fighting.Every year in April in Odessa held a marathon hiking and cycling race along the "belt of Fame" dedicated to the anniversary of liberation from Nazi invaders.

Now you know how many lasted defense of Odessa, which parts have taken part in it, and what were its results.