dissemination of information, its continued collection and recycling in modern society is due to the special resources: human, financial, technical and other.At some point, these data are collected in one place structured on predetermined criteria are combined into easy-to-use special database.The information system is a tool by which the received data are processed.The primary function of IP is to provide relevant information of people.In other words, it meets a need in the data within a given subject area.Product of information system data sets are structured framework, various types of documents.Later in the article a closer look at the appointment, tasks and properties of these structures.
Information systems, depending on the type of treatment they received data, divided into two groups.The first is the structure of the work which is carried out in complex patterns.These systems are able to process information independently.This category includes, for example, the automated program.The second group included information and referral system.They do not have sophisticated information processing circuits.Information system - a structure that provides data on request.It is designed for quick retrieval and delivery of information in a convenient format.
The main objectives of this structure is to collect, process for storage and provision of information to users upon request.The type and content of the information provided is influenced by accumulated reference data repositories.The process of issuing the requested information based on the associative search in the databases (stores), followed by processing them in a user-friendly format.Information system of the archive sector allows to accumulate and store data for long periods of time.It is also possible to exchange information with external sources subscribers.Examples include the following: Information systems: urban certificate dispatch service organizations, departments of the search data storage and others.
in the structure under consideration have multiple elements.The main components, which include information and referral system is:
- General Store.
- specialized devices that convert the information in a format accessible to subscribers.
- information channels.
- special item (the "brain" of the structure, the processor), the processing flow of data (a group of people or a computing machine).
Forms directory systems
There are two types of structures: factual and documentary.In the first case, the information-reference systems include schemes based on the provision of a common set of facts: name of the process, the name of the object, the value of others.Documentary type of system is supplying the information stored in it in the form of documents: legislation, regulations, certificates, and so on.Structures factual type differ from each other the complexity of data processing.The simplest types of such systems are those that are based on the principle of search of the desired information in its repository.More complex circuits utilized by the semantic processing of the data they have.Thus, they are able to, for example, to select only the necessary information (fact paragraph) of the total text of the document.The most practical use gained information system based on a combination of two types: factual documentary.
degree of automation of information processing has a significant impact on the performance of any help.In this regard, the recent widely developed and implemented an automated program searching, collecting and structuring data.They are based on powerful electronic computers.With the development of the use of computers has been significantly facilitated the process of updating and storing information.The main elements are the most AISS:
- technical component.This directly own a computer acting as a brain structure, a set of auxiliary equipment providing input-output devices, allowing the user to work with the database, electronic data storage devices (disks, magnetic tapes, etc.).
- Storage of data and software.The automated information system and the subscribers are connected with standard devices (teletype).They, in turn, is connected directly to a computer via the telephone or telegraph channels.Especially popular with subscribers received consoles with built-in screens.The monitor displays the information in the Help system.It is also equipped with a special remote keypad through which the control and input the required data.
automated information system is based on a combination of multiple repositories.They contain all the necessary data for the functioning of the structure.The information is structured in a certain way, taking into account all the requirements for the form, type and time of submission of the request of the user.The level of information contained in the system, the quality of their renovation and structuring depends on the characteristics of the storage and their amounts.
Software of AISS
There are a number of special programs to perform specific algorithms for transformation of information and to manage all processes that occur within the system.This type of software is made with just a few "formal language":
- the outside world, by means of which the subscriber generates a request to the system;
- and routines;
on the productivity of any reference system affects:
- structural organization of the processes, based on the serial data processing;
- optimal allocation of its resources and modes of operation;
- clarity of understanding user commands.
also increase the average productivity AISS is achieved through the introduction of the latest software.It, in turn, influences the process of computing and allows multitasking.
work of modern information and information systems is based on the definition of priorities in the service users, the choice of the most important tasks.This is the process of combining modes for new requests and issuing information on certain program time periods.In the case of non-standard parameter information retrieval system is also able to, without using additional resources to find the necessary data.The current structure is capable of without any loss of time and quality of information to simultaneously serve multiple users (the exact number is determined by hardware).Its use in AISS found such sectors as industry and agriculture, with the help of automated processes taking place in enterprises and organizations of scientific orientation.Very popular and legal information and referral systems, allowing customers to a large database to find the necessary information requested by the normative act.