Commune - a team of people come together to live together on the basis of community of property and labor.Established in a one-time rush of people, the community is trying to set an example for the country as a whole, showing his ideal in a reduced format.
Paris Commune - an attempt to change France
first communes were organized in the 19th century.But the most successful attempt to change the world has tried to implement the Paris Commune.Its existence was brief, it lasted only 2 months: from March 18 to May 18, 1871 goda.Nazyvalos this community "revolutionary government of workers" or "state of equals", as history shows.The Paris Commune was created in order to organize a level playing field for all residents of the French capital that would significantly facilitate the existence of the working class and restore justice.
particularly clearly the principle of equality in all communes seen in Russian, appeared at once in the post-revolutionary period.These organizations represent a labor cell renewal of Soviet society in which relations were based on the heat of internal communication.An example for this is a good family, and was based on the love that can heal the majority of mental ills.Commune - a haven providing psychologically comfortable life and taking care of all those who needed it and was willing to live by the rules of community.
Unlike public cells of times past, the modern commune guided by slightly different principles, speaking fighters against the existing system and promoting anarchy.
Children commune - a school of life for homeless
In the early 20th century in order to build a renewed Soviet team were set up for children of the commune, representing educational institutions to combat child homelessness.A good example is a social experiment, stands Children's Commune Dzerzhinsky, Colonia them.Gorky and Bolshevo commune who took under his roof a large number of children left without parents after the last war (World War I and the Civil).Total number of young vagrants in 1922 amounted to about 7 million people.
children in municipalities where work and study were mandatory for all life is built on the principle of self-organization and self-government, establish rules of conduct and supervise their implementation.
were created for different age groups of 7-15 people, enabling older children teach the younger ones that provided the link between generations.Each unit had its place in the dining room and bedroom, and commanders once a week going to solve organizational and economic issues.Develop the principles of the colony permanently pulled the children from nomadic schooling environment in which they were thrown into the horrors besprizorschiny.
Anton Makarenko: parenting practices
Anton Makarenko - known teacher and author, led a colony of them.Gorky - in the educational process often used the so-called method of explosion, invented and successfully tested by him.Its essence was a strong one-off effects in humans, led to the extreme point of the conflict, in order to make decisive changes within myself: to be a member of the community or leave it.It created the collective restructuring meant falling into a people in accordance with their own principles: respect for themselves and others, confidence, constant learning and productivity.
blast method used children's commune in attracting new guys.For homeless child on the street approaching troops of the Communards, inviting them to go to live and work.And the answer should have been given immediately, on the spot.If agreed homeless, the commune he was going with a group of richly dressed guys with the orchestra and the banner.Thus there is a rite of adoption, whose aim was to shock, surprise, make an unforgettable impression.The new members of the commune were fed, washed, dressed in clean clothes, the old burned immediately, which meant parting with the past.Run away from this beautiful life nobody wanted, but to remain in it, it was required to study and work.Criminal inmates were sent to the makings of a track that united the team such a risky venture, as the organization of teams to fight brewing and illegal logging.
principle of life in the commune
In the commune were adopted strict rules and strict discipline closer to the military and are the same for everyone from teachers to students.The slightest deviation from the rules were subjected to scrutiny.The aesthetic side of life is also attached great importance: cleanliness, order had to be in everything from his bed and ending with the territory in which housed the municipality.This disciplined pupils and accustomed to careful attitude to the world.
course, habits fracture occurred over a long period.One could not expect miracles from former alcoholics, thieves, drug addicts.Teachers, knowing this, have established mutual responsibility: one for all and all for one.Former street children, who wanted to change lives and get on the right track, have set for themselves and other three basic rules:
- want - live, do not want to - go away!
- decided to live in the community - and learn to work!
- all responsible for everyone.
For the fugitive inmates existed a collective form of public shame, but mainly by exposure to unwanted work was their public pronouncement of "disability work".Skive, oddly enough, put in the best conditions.For truants, loafers and hooligans organized "11 list."If absenteeism at lunchtime in front of the table where they were sitting, covered with black cloth and serve all the best that she could offer a dining area.Seated around a prepared orchestra playing "Siskin" and read the resolution of the general meeting, that "such a hold on the list of persons №11 5 days."The ritual, which lasted a few minutes, there is a general fun and do not hesitate to put anything before truants to a standstill.In this way, revolutionize consciousness and revision of relations of pupils to work.
Commune - Factory best
existence of the commune pays off not only their needs and requirements, but also carried the state.In the commune of Dzerzhinsky was the first in the Soviet Union Power Plant, and later plant and cameras, brings the country's annual profit of about 5 million rubles.Also, the positive side was the assimilation of the Communards complex professions.
well-educated and well-bred people who have become worthy citizens of the country - namely those of his disciples walls released commune.It's hundreds of people who at some point in time just fortunate enough to change your life for the better thanks to competent teachers, friendly staff and, of course, themselves.