the end of the nineteenth century in European art and literature a new phenomenon.It became known as decadence.What it is?Translated from the French (or even medieval Latin) word meaning "sunset", "decline".Initially, it was used by historians to describe the situation in the culture of late Roman Antiquity.But then, the term took up the artists themselves, after which he acquired a slightly different meaning.Decadence was considered something special, opposing philistinism and respectable burghers.The Russian Art & literary studies often use a different term.This "decadence."
In the visual arts supporters and followers of the new phenomenon is often opposed formalizing such a popular and conventional style as academic.Representatives of decadence, in fact, were the modernists and were eager for new forms that, in their opinion, more consistent with the complex and often contradictory nature of contemporary culture.In addition, writers and poets writing in this style, sought to unlimited self-expression.They are not so much interested in the fate of society, but rather a matter of personal existence, or rather, his limbs.No wonder it is often associated with the death of our decadence.
meaning of the word, of course, has changed, and today's culture, it is a kind of rapture ugliness, sadness and fear.In short, what is expensive so-called Goths.But in those days, poets, artists and writers not only sought to "lovers of death" .They also tried to open this rather taboo "philistines" theme.
And we say to ourselves: the decadence ... what is it?Where did this phenomenon and what it means?We're trying to not just hang a label on it, and to understand why these people are often called immoral.It's great creators - Verlaine, Oscar Wilde, Edgar Allan Poe, Theophile Gautier ... Perhaps because many of them believed that the moral standards of contemporary society, too, outdated and have become a formal category.And, perhaps, these rules require expansion.It is considered that the decadent poets, such as Oscar Wilde, were fascinated by evil.But this writer and esthete actually suffered for their homosexual tendencies.Today, many human rights activists in favor of the fact that such people should be able to self-realization.
Decadence ... What is it?It wondered about the famous philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche XIX century.And the answer is as follows: it is a time when the culture dies, becomes its opposite, and the man weakens and loses the will to live and to power.He was seconded and Spengler.The culture of modern Europe on the wane, and loses all of its main positions.However, the twentieth century has shown us that it is an ambiguous phenomenon was just a harbinger of change.Perhaps he felt the approach of the adherents of a severe crisis, world wars and upheavals.After all, our morality and in fact changed.And now, once again in vogue word "decadence".What does this mean for the modern man?For some, this fascination with the art of the XIX century for someone - the intoxication of death, and for someone - just an album the group "Agatha Christie".We live in times of pluralism.The choice is ours.