Each company from time to time there is a need for cash distribution to employees for various purposes, such as for example:
• advances for travel expenses;
• advance for administrative and economic needs, the purchase of inventory, spare parts, to pay for postage and hospitality, as well as all sorts of fees.
So, we shall understand exactly who is entitled to receive funds under the report, the reasons for which it needs to properly execute documents and accounting operations for the issuance of money, as well as correctly make an advance report on the expenditures made.
accountant - who are they?
There are cases when an inexperienced or careless accountant writes a sum of money to the representatives of the supplier or the customer and assigns it to 71 accounts.Basically this sin small enterprises, believing that in this way they are designed with the lender or pay order.This is a flagrant violation of the statutory legal acts.
accountant - is necessarily employees.In addition, the issuance of money by the report precedes the conclusion of a contract with an employee of the liability, which is determined by its measure and specifies the rights and obligations of the parties.
Typically, the range of material-responsible and accountable persons establishes the head, making the appropriate order, are updated annually.Accounting of imprest represents 71 bill.
Accountable sums of money for travel expenses of the fund are issued or transferred to the card the employee a written application to the resolution manager.Of course, in this case, an agreement on material responsibility is not necessary, because to go on a business trip can any employee of the firm, and the base for a trip is order management and accounting records transactions through 71.
grounds for the payment of money on account
This issue is governed by the applicable law and the basic rules of the operation are as follows:
• banned the paperwork for the payment of money on account, if the employee failed to account for the amount received earlier;
• Money shall be issued upon application, endorsed by the head with a note on the amount and the period for which it is issued;
• report on the expenditures incurred drawn up and signed within 3 days after the end of the trip or the expiry of the term of the head.
So, after expenses incurred, or on arrival from a business trip the employee must report in 3 days and submit accountant expense report form AO-1 with the documents proving the consistency of spending undertaken.
in expense reports are counted up, and the result is displayed:
• remainder of the money is not as exhausted all means;
• remainder have since made spending less than planned;
• overruns granted funds, as they spent a greater extent.
residue is returned to the cashier of the company FFP, and the amount of overrun is handed by RKO.All accounting operations reflects 71 imprest accounts.
Failure to comply with the rules established by the legislation the amount of imprest funds withheld from wages or recognized as a loss and subsequently collected by the court.How does
Viewed by compiling information on settlements with employees on the funds granted under the report.These amounts relate to the debit account 71 korrespondiruyas with accounts of funds, for example, 50 - "Cash".Documented amount of costs deducted from the loan account 71 in the debit of expense accounts, such as 10 - "Materials," and others.
not returned by employees amount deducted from the loan account 71 in the debit account 94 - "Shortage".Subsequently, these amounts are deducted from the loan 94 to 70. If the debit payroll deduction due to any reason impossible, then debited by 73 and raises the question of compensation for the damage caused to the enterprise.
It should be noted that the analytical accounting is carried out separately for each employee with an obligatory excretion of monthly totals.Mechanized keeping with the program "1C" allows you to create the desired document in the context of issued or written off, set the time range or specify a list of reporting entities, unites all the data card accounts 71. Podotchetnik also should report the sum of each issued, amounting to an advance report in the time.Analytics combines log-loss in a row 71, which is made at the end of the reporting period.
Each expense report is fulfilled accountant with posting data through 71. The postings reflect accounting operations imprest:
• Dt 71 - KT 50 - issued from the cash amount accountable.
• Dt 71 - KT 51 - the amount credited to the current account in the employee's card.
• Dt 41 - KT 71 - the purchase of goods from the petty cash.
• Dt 10 - KT 71 - the purchase of materials.
• Dt 26 - KT 71 - decommissioned general expenses, such as paid by the postal services.
• Dt 20 - KT 71 - charged travel expenses.
• Dt 50 - KT 71 - the rest of imprest officer made in cash.
• Dt 70 - KT 71 - the rest of imprest deducted from the employee's salary.
• Dt 94 - KT 71 - the employee has not reported on the expenditure made by the due date.
• Dt 73.2 - KT 71 - hold a shortage of personnel.
• Dt 91.2 - KT 71 - assignment of the amount of shortage for other expenses, if the recovery is not possible.
Features bills №71
Account is an active-passive.We have considered the traditional accounting entries in a row 71, when it acts as an active, t. E. Is debited on receipt of money and credit in the write-off costs.As a passive account is used less frequently, but such cases are.
example, cash on hand the company is not, and have to go on a business trip, and the employee agrees to use personal finance on the condition that the return travel expenses will be paid.In this case, the wiring is made Dt 20 - KT 71.
In this case, any expenses to pay them, and the company undertakes to repay.In this example, the score 71 - passive.
If a company - for VAT
If the company is a VAT payer and accumulates the amount of tax paid for goods or services on the account 19 - "VAT", then the purchase of materials or payments made from the imprest should reflect the amount of VAT wiring D-t 19 - KT 71 - the amount of tax paid.
Basis for writing off costs
Taking advance report, the accountant checks the documents confirming expenses.These can be invoices, bills and invoices on the acquisition of property, cash and receipts confirming payment of various services, t. E. Primary documents, which are the fundamental basis for the allocation of costs on the 71 account.
basic requirement of the business transaction in the account is a written confirmation of the transaction.In other words, all the costs specified in the advance report, should be justified and confirmed by primary accounting documents, properly decorated, filled with details, necessary signatures, seals and stamps.Expenses not confirmed by documents or confirmed inchoate securities may not be adopted and reflected in the account, which can lead to unpleasant consequences.A member of his own pocket to pay for such costs.
therefore accountable person should give serious consideration to the question of registration of the expense report in a timely manner to claim properly completed documents for the expenses incurred.
Accountant receiving advance report, check the arithmetic calculations, the presence and design of supporting documents, in a special section of the record does reflect the costs verifies 71 by confirming posting his paintings.Then write out receipt or account cash warrant in the amount of differences between outstanding and disbursed amounts, hand it to the cashier and closes the advance report.
What needs to be remembered with tax audits
Period for which the accountable person granted funds for hoznuzhdy, the law is not established.It may be determined by the head of the organization.However, the law is not interpreted as a duty officer.In determining the period, the employee is obliged to report on expenditures for 3 days after its expiry.And if no time has been set, then, for a long time, even without accounting for the petty cash, you can not break it.Therefore, if the company is not determined by a similar period, the tax claims about finding a long-term petty cash on hand is required to be made, although it is believed they can not be justified.
By identifying such cases, the tax authorities classify them as interest-free loan, demanding to determine the amount of material benefit arising from an employee, include it in the composition of its income and keep the personal income tax.
Such a requirement of the tax unlawfully, since the concept of material benefit, established by Art.212 of the Tax Code does not include the above-described situation.In accordance with the Tax Code of material gain is income received:
• from savings on interest for the use of credit institutions;
• from the acquisition of property or services for the civil contract;
• from the acquisition of shares or other securities.
The arguments of the tax authorities in this case are illegal, since the loans from credit institutions formalized the contract and issuing accountable amount is carried out on the application.But in the interests of management companies - the right to draw up documents for the grant of funds to be accounted for in order to avoid claims of inspection bodies.