water cycle in nature - it is one of the most important processes in the geographical envelope.At its heart - the two interrelated processes: the earth's surface moisture precipitation and evaporation of moisture from it into the atmosphere.Both these processes precisely determine the coefficient of moisture for a specific territory.What is the ratio of moisture and how it is determined?This is what will be discussed in this white paper.
dampening factor: definition
moistening and evaporation of moisture from its surface in the whole world is exactly the same.However, the question of what is the coefficient of moisture in different countries of the world meet in very different ways.And the concept in such a formulation is accepted in all countries.For example, in the United States is "precipitation-evaporation ratio", that can be literally translated as "index (the ratio) and moisture evaporation."
Yet that is dampening factor?This is a definite correlation between the amount of precipitation and evaporation levels in the territory for a specific period of time.The formula for calculating this ratio is very simple:
K = G /,
where G - rainfall (in mm);
A and - the value of volatility (also in millimeters).
Different approaches to defining factor
How to determine the coefficient of moisture?At present, there are about 20 different ways.
in our country (as well as the former Soviet Union) is most commonly used method of determining the proposed George N. Vysotsky.This is an outstanding Ukrainian scientist, geobotanist and soil scientist, the founder of the science of forest.During his lifetime, he wrote more than 200 scientific papers.
It is worth noting that in Europe and in the United States using the coefficient Tortveyta.However, the method of its calculation much more complex and has its own drawbacks.
To determine the rate for a particular area is not difficult.Consider this technique in the following example.
Dana area for which you want to calculate the coefficient of moisture.It is known that for the year this area receives 900 mm of precipitation and evaporation from it during the same period - 600 mm.To calculate the ratio should be divided rainfall in volatility, ie 900/600 mm.As a result, we get a value of 1.5.This will be the ratio of moisture to the area.
factor dampening Ivanov-Vysotsky can be unity, be less than or greater than 1. In this case, if:
- K = 0, the moisture for the area is considered sufficient;
- K is greater than 1, the excess moisture;
- It is less than 1, the lack of moisture.
The value of this indicator, of course, will depend on the temperature conditions in a particular area, as well as the amount of atmospheric precipitation for the year.
Why use moisturizing factor?
factor Ivanov-Vysotsky - this is an extremely important indicator of climate.After all, he is able to give a picture of the security of the area of water resources.This ratio is a must for the development of agriculture, as well as for overall economic planning area.
It also determines the level of dryness of the climate: what it is, the climate is humid.In areas with abundant moisture has always been an abundance of lakes and wetlands.The vegetation is dominated by meadow and forest vegetation.
Maximum coefficient characteristic of mountainous areas (above 1000-1200 meters).Here, as a rule, an excess of moisture, which can reach 300-500 millimeters per year!The same amount of atmospheric moisture gets the steppe zone during the year.Moisturizing factor in mountain regions reaches the maximum value is 1.8-2.4.
excess moisture is also observed in the natural taiga, tundra, forest tundra and temperate deciduous forests.In these areas the ratio is not more than 1.5.In the forest-steppe zone it is in the range from 0.7 to 1.0, but in the steppe zone has been insufficient moisture areas (K = 0.3-0.6).
minimum values wetting characteristic of the semi-desert zone (about 0.2-0.3), as well as for the desert zone (up to 0.1).
dampening factor in Russia
Russia - a vast country, which is characterized by a wide variety of climatic conditions.Speaking of the humidification ratio, its value within Russia vary widely from 0.3 to 1.5.Most scant moisture observed in the Caspian (about 0.3).In the steppe and forest-steppe zone is slightly higher - 0.5-0.8.Maximum moisture characteristic of the forest-tundra zone, as well as mountainous regions of the Caucasus, Altai, Urals.
Now you know what a coefficient of moisture.This is quite an important indicator, which plays a very important role for the development of the national economy and agriculture.This ratio depends on two values: the amount of precipitation and evaporation of the volume for a certain period of time.