All moving technical equipment, vehicles, construction equipment, shipping and more.al., are equipped with propulsion systems of various characteristics.In most cases, this internal combustion engines, powerful enough and effective, has long established itself as a reliable means of providing motor function mechanisms.
General description of the unit
The page photo of the engine with the description of the workflow.Image engine cutaway allows to learn the basic knots and details.At the bottom is the crankcase with oil pump, which drives away the grease through special channels, starting from the crankshaft and ending with the timing chain drive.Proceeding through the channels of the crankshaft, the oil pressure in the four air lubricates the bearings or shells of indigenous and crank pins of the crank mechanism.Simultaneously, lubricant is sprayed is transformed into oil mist, which allows formation of a film on the mirror cylinder.The pistons slide smoothly, with almost zero friction.Each of them has one to three oil rings located above the main compression.The purpose of these rings to remove the excess oil and prevent it from falling into the combustion chamber.Oil also enters the upper chat engine where the lubricant timing, camshaft, valve lifters and levers.Another area of action of the lubrication system - a gear and a double chain tensioner.Here, the oil is distributed by gravity, it is sprayed rotating parts.During operation of the vehicle engine oil is contaminated metal microparticles.Each car has a mileage rate, after which it is necessary to replace the lubricant.If passed kilometric count is not possible, you should periodically check the engine oil on the transparency.In the case of browning is required urgently for a substitution.
Engine Description You can start with the principle of its operation.Propulsion systems, internal combustion engines are of two types: petrol and diesel, with the first work on the principle of expansion of gases produced by the combustion of the fuel mixture is ignited by an electric spark.The emerging pressure causes the piston to rapidly descend to the lowest point, the crank mechanism begins to rotate, so there is the duty cycle.The most common number of cylinders - four, but there are six-and eight engines.Sometimes it comes to the number of cylinders of sixteen, is particularly powerful motors, running smoothly, their performance is high.These engines are installed on luxury motor vehicles.
diesel engine works on the same principle, but the combustible mixture in the combustion chamber is ignited no spark, and under the influence of compression.
Internal combustion engines are divided into two- and four-stroke.The difference between the essential principles of action.Motorcycle engines typically operate in push-pull mode, almost all car - four-stroke.
description of an engine running on gasoline, should start from the moment when out of the carburetor or injector received a portion of the combustible mixture.In the combustion chamber of the cylinder formed a kind of cloud of the mixture of air and gasoline vapors.It is almost ready fuel mixture, but it still needs to compress and ignite.Compression occurs under the action of the piston, rising from below, and when it will be at the top, the electrical system of the car will give a spark, the mixture is ignited, there will be a sharp increase in pressure, and the piston goes down.Thus arises the rotational energy, which is the driving force.
in automobile engines can be from three to sixteen pistons.Each of them carries out its mission and follows strictly the marked schedule, which creates timing, gas distribution mechanism of the machine.Thus, there is a continuous cycle of rotation of the crankshaft, which is ultimately transmitted to the wheels.
description of the internal combustion engine in stages as follows:
- absorption of the combustible mixture (piston goes down);
- compressing and igniting the combustible mixture (the piston is at top dead center);
- stroke (piston moves down);
- exhaust mixture (piston moves up);
main bars can be combined with additional accompanying processes of short-term actions.
Gasoline - a universal fuel that has a number of advantages, and its quality depends on the octane number obtained during processing.But the cost of this type of fuel is high enough.Therefore, in automotive applications engines are widely used, operating on diesel fuel.
Description of the diesel engine running on diesel, you need to start with a small prehistory of how this unit has been created.In 1890, German engineer Rudolf Diesel created and patented the first motor, operating on the principle of compression of the combustible mixture.First Diesel engine has not been adopted for widespread use, since the design and efficiency of the mechanism of inferior steam engine.But after a while Diesel engines were installed in the river and sea vessels, where they are very good.
The main advantage of the new engine compared to the steam engine was the fact that the unit is operating at an angle, took up half the space below deck of the steamer, and the other half was given over to coal reserves.Steam engine served whole brigade firemen and mechanics.A diesel engine was compact, located along the fuel tank only a few square meters.For its operation was only one mechanic.Gradually replaced steam diesel car and was in demand all ships of sea and river class.There was a need for mass production, which was established shortly enterprising contemporaries Rudolf Diesel with his direct participation.
diesel engine pistons are at the top of the working groove that contributes to turbulence in the combustion chamber.For the operation of the engine must be one condition - the fuel mixture should be hot.In the process, already running motor heating occurs by itself.And to start the machine even in the warmer months is necessary to heat the system.To do this, each diesel engine built special glow.
Universal motor TSI
Winner of "Engine of the Year" in 2006, 2007 and 2008.The most advanced engine recently. engine TSI, the disclosure of which may take more than one page, it is one of the most efficient engines of our time.The principle of its operation due to the application of dual fuel injection and the presence of the compressor, which delivers the fuel mixture under pressure.
engine TSI - a storehouse of the most advanced technologies, but the unit needs thorough attention.When servicing the engine, use only high-quality consumables, and its operation is the timely adjustment.The most important part of the engine TSI - compressor, equipped with special gear that increases its turnover to 17 thousand per minute, providing maximum boost pressure.
engine TSI, the disclosure of which would be incomplete without a mention of the significant deficiencies in the cold season warmed up very slowly.Run the car with the TSI engine in the cold can not be in the cabin clock can stand temperatures below zero.And in the warm season is an economical low speed engine with excellent performance.
German "people's car" in 2000 chosen for their production models engines, manufactured by technology TSI, as well as FSI.The German company is today the world's only manufacturer to offer engines TSI and FSI as basic for almost all of its models.Description Engine "VW", in particular motor TSI, has already been done above.Feature generalization, but rather informative.
Description FSI engine is better to start with its traction characteristics that vary between 120-140 liters.from.Motor economical, has a long service life.FSI (Fuel Stratified Injection) is translated "stratified injection".
FSI engine The main difference from other power plants is the dual system of low and high pressure.The contour of the low pressure includes a fuel tank, fuel pump and filter.Circuit pressure directly responsible for high fuel injection.The principle of operation is based on the FSI engine strictly dosed injection of the fuel injection pump.The dose is adjusted automatically using a low pressure transducer.From the amount of fuel it depends on the number of revolutions.The accelerator pedal is already in principle not necessary, although it is stored in the machine.
Description Engine FSI Volkswagen can supplement it with data on cost-effectiveness and high efficiency.
Motors' Opel "
German automobile manufacturers are always in competition with each other.Machinery mark "Opel" are reliable and convenient.The popularity of models with "lightning" on the hood proved consistently high sales.If the buyer is going to buy a low-cost, easy to maintain machine, he chooses "Opel".Engines whose description is included in the technical documentation of the car, classified according to the model name.For example, "Opel Corsa" is equipped with a motor Opel Corsa BC 1,2 16v Ecotec 3. On the Astra Motor set Opel z19DTH ASTRA III 16v 150k.But along with this, there are a number of unified propulsion systems that can be installed regardless of the index and name.
plant in Togliatti
Description engine VAZ complexity is not - there are only two types.The motors for the rear-wheel drive cars VAZ-2101, 2102, 2103, 2104, 2105, 2106 and 2107 - is a four-cylinder power units about one and layout.And engines for front-drive models of VAZ-2108 and VAZ-2109 and their modifications.
VAZ All engines are reliable and unpretentious in operation.Adjustment of ignition timing and valve clearance are readily available for the driver, it only needs to know the scheme and sequence of actions.Engines vysokooborotisty and pickup.Resource is not too big, but major repairs including replacement of piston rings and liners, main and connecting rod, not a problem.
Description engine "Toyota"
Motors famous Japanese manufacturer of compact, four-cylinder, preferably a cross-location, with very high performance.Injection gasoline engines, work on the principle of direct injection.Four valves per cylinder allow the timing to bring the process to perfection.
economic engine of the brand "Toyota" is widely known, besides the manufacturer renowned for unparalleled low CO2 emissions of exhaust gases.Series motors are designated set of capital Latin letters in combination with Arabic numerals.No names are not added.
engine life "Toyota" comes to 300 thousand kilometers, and then still do not need a major overhaul, it is sufficient to release stuck piston rings and clean the cooling system.With a little prevention engine successfully continues.
engine range of German concern "Bavaria Motor Werke" is much more extensive than that of Japanese manufacturers.The assets of BMW - the four- and six-cylinder in-line engines, V-shaped "eight" and "ten", there are also twelve-, particularly powerful engines.The majority of BMW engines are produced in a format DOHC and SOHC.
Proprietary Engines repeatedly became winners of the contest "Engine of the Year", for example brand S85B50 received 11 awards from 2005 to 2008.
Engines "BMW", the disclosure of which is difficult because of the huge number of modifications that can be described as superreliable, perfectly balanced units.
Zavolzhsky Motors engine plant
Ruler powertrains, ZMZ produced in the town of Trans-Volga, it is quite modest.The plant produces only a few modifications to the average power.But it is worth noting an impressive number of products.Engine brand "ZMZ-406" has released a series of one and a half million copies.The motor is mounted on cars, "GAS" Gorky plant.Among them, "Gazelle", "Volga-3110" and "Volga-3102".
What is the engine 406?Description is given below.
Motor comes with injector under the designation 406-2.10 and runs on gasoline AI-92.Carburettor 406-1 version is designed for gasoline with an octane rating of 76. Another petrol engine, 406-3 running on high-octane fuel, gasoline AI-95.All motors are equipped with a series of 406 electronics and BOSCH two ignition coils.
repair internal combustion engine
Design car engine requires periodic maintenance of separate units or overhaul of the entire unit as a whole.The engine includes cylinder block, crankshaft, connecting rods, pistons with compression and oil scraper rings, cylinder head with the camshaft including a cam chain drive and valves.
At deterioration of certain parts or all of the motor as a whole is made unusable replacement parts.This process is called "engine repair."Description of action for the rehabilitation of the motor is given in the literature, with detailed instructions.Minor repairs can be done in the home, and more complex, requiring special equipment, it is better to spend in the technical center.
At overhaul the internal combustion engine must first determine the extent of wear and tear.This requires a diagnosis.As a rule, when oil pressure needs to be replaced indigenous inserts the crankshaft and connecting rod bushings.If the crankshaft journals are worn, they should be chiseled under the repair size, and set the appropriate inserts.In that case, if the mirror is worn cylinder unit zapresovyvayutsya new liner or old chiseled under the repair size with the subsequent installation of new pistons and new rings.With the development of small simply change the ring, compression and rebound.The same can be said about the already mentioned inserts.If the crankshaft journals generation is negligible, it is possible to replace only the ear and do not do boring.In this case, the oil pressure is normal, and an updated engine will be ready to go.