The climate of the Indian Ocean.

youngest and the warmest ocean planet - is Indian.Most of its waters were located in the southern hemisphere, and the North, he literally bumps into the continent.For this reason, people find it a huge sea, which is divided into numerous bays.The climate of the Indian Ocean is most suitable for a beach holiday.In this vast body of water is a record number of islands that have long been chosen by tourists from around the world.The climate of the Indian Ocean also makes it the most striking and unique in terms of flora and fauna.So now we will not be distracted by the epithets, and a detailed look at all aspects of this wonderful body of water.

General information

Deal with the situation and the parameters of the reservoir will help us geography.Indian Ocean - the third largest in the world after the Pacific and Atlantic.It occupies about 20 percent of the waters of the Earth.Its area is 76.17 million square kilometers, and the volume reached 282.65 cubic kilometers.The deepest point of the ocean is i

n the Sunda Trench, and its depth is 7729 meters.From all corners of the world ocean concerns continents: in the West this sultry Africa, the North - Asia, in the east it borders with Australia and the South reaches the shores of an icy Antarctica (although some scholars believe that there he moved to the Southern Ocean).This provision of the Indian Ocean is responsible for its weather conditions and trends, the majority of which are warm.

history

Until the Age of Discovery Indian Ocean, people seemed like one big sea, which washes the shores of the world.On its shores were born the first world civilization, the first city-states.In addition, the first ships and boats in the history of mankind is lowered into the waters of the "sea".From then until the present day climate of the Indian Ocean has not changed.Since it has been for centuries, very warm and calm, in the 15th century it was in its waters started, the so-called era of geographical discoveries.The first began to explore the vastness of the ocean Vasco da Gama, was followed by James Cook and others.Studying the bottom of this huge body of water, its flora and fauna began only in the 19th century.For the first time researchers have found that local water warm, not only because the ocean is mainly in the tropics.Its bottom is riddled with faults crust from erupting molten lava.Thus, warm air over the surface and heat from the earth's crust, strongly heats the water, making them beneficial for the inhabitants of marine and beach lovers.

bay, sea, islands

very significant volume of the Indian Ocean - is its numerous sea.In general, they take up to 15 percent of its waters and are located off the coast of neighboring continents, as well as between the numerous archipelagos.Now we list all the seas and bays clockwise.Let's start with the Red - the northernmost and most salty.It is followed by the Arabian Sea or the Persian Gulf, Laccadive Sea, Bay of Bengal, the Andaman, the Timor Sea, the Arafura Sea and the Gulf of Carpentaria, Great Australian Bight, sea Mawson, Davis, Commonwealth and astronauts.Such a number of surrounding waters caused not only by rugged coastlines of continents, and islands.The biggest of them is Madagascar.This is followed by Zanzibar, Sri Lanka, Philippines, Andaman archipelago of Socotra, Comoros, King, Seychelles, Maldives and many others.

Geological structure

Features of the Indian Ocean are its diverse terrain, which is under the water.Its waters account for the mass of tectonic faults, many places of the compounds of the lithospheric plates.Due to this, in different parts of the ocean it has a different bottom that affects the weather and the color of water and the flora and fauna.There are three segments of the ocean, different from each other in structure:

  • part of Africa.There is a pronounced shelf and continental slope.Due to this mainly flat bottom, there are only small hills.Away from the coast lies the ancient seamounts, many of which show through the surface in the form of dormant volcanoes and overgrown with corals.The most famous of them - the Seychelles.
  • Indo-Australian part.In this segment, the shelf is very narrow and is near the coast of Asia, and has a steep slope.This part of the ocean the most extensive, and it is composed of many mountain ranges, peaks and troughs, presented in the form of cones.Some of them show through to the surface, forming a continental Island (Christmas Island).
  • of the Antarctic.Off the coast of the coldest continent of the world ocean is cut canyons through which the water drains underground rivers of Antarctica.Near the coast of the mainland is a deep pit, which turns into a large plain

Climatic zones of the reservoir

In order to most accurately understand this issue, we need a map of the Indian Ocean.Based on its data, we see that a large part of the area lies in the southern hemisphere.In the North, the third largest ocean falls only in tropical and sub-equatorial belt.Then he crosses the line of the equator - the hottest area of ​​the planet.In the Southern Hemisphere ocean is divided into sub-equatorial, tropical, subtropical, temperate and sub-Antarctic and Antarctic zones.It is worth noting that, since the moderate natural area, ocean area is largely reduced.These waters of conventionally referred to as rings that cover Antarctica.They are famous for cold currents and even frost.

Northern tropics

we start looking at the climate of the Indian Ocean from this natural area, which is also the most visited by tourists.It is situated off the coast of the Persian Gulf to the west and the Andaman Sea in the east, as well as all the surrounding areas.This area is a classic area of ​​the monsoon.In the winter, they have a moderate speed, so over the region almost always cloudless and dry.In summer, their power increases, so that often there is not only showers, but the tornado.Note that the particular climate of the Indian Ocean in this area lie in the fact that the western part is much drier and saltier east.Here rise the record high temperature (32-34 degrees Celsius), while falling only 500 mm of rainfall.In the east of the region, on the contrary, often the case of rain, even in the winter, which is why many bodies of water salinity decreases.

Equatorial Zone

Equator - the main latitude, which stretches along the Indian Ocean.Photos that are often featured in various tourist brochures are made in this region, and we will understand why.Firstly, in the area is very lush vegetation, which was formed due to the huge amount of rainfall - up to 4000 mm.Secondly, at the equator tested major ocean ridges, which form a relief.There are many atolls surrounded by blue lagoons - a typical "tropical paradise."In general, the climate of the Indian Ocean in the equatorial zone is much wetter than in the tropics, but is more stable.There are no drastic seasonal changes in temperature and humidity, but the monsoons still occur frequently.

southern tropics

Considering features of the Indian Ocean, you can not lose sight of this climatic zone.It is considered the most relaxed and at the same time, extensive.Here dominate the trade winds, which are amplified in the winter, sometimes creating a storm, and sagging in the summer.Winter in the region lasts from May to September and during this period over the ocean going to a lot of clouds.There is a huge amount of rain fall - up to 1500 mm, often fog.In the summer (December-March), there is very dry.Humidity is reduced to 300 mm, the wind subsiding, collapsing clouds and fog.The air temperature in the winter is about 20 degrees Celsius, and in summer rises to 25.

Moderate southern belt

For a more detailed consideration of the climatic zone, we again need a map of the Indian Ocean.It is important to her present delimitation of water areas.According to this scheme you can see that in the temperate zone it is part of the Indian Ocean ring, which is located around Antarctica.Then it connects to the Pacific Ocean in the east and the Atlantic to the west.The region can be traced sharp seasonal changes in temperature.So, in the winter it drops to 10 or 15 degrees below zero, and in the summer rises to 10-15 degrees Celsius.This region is famous for its low atmospheric pressure, because there is always prevail fog and clouds.In winter, westerly winds bring rainy cyclones, causing storms.In the summer there is relatively sunny and calm.

subantarctic belt

We mentioned that the Indian Ocean - it is the warmest part of the world's waters, the zone of perpetual sun and summer.Here, at any time of the year you can enjoy the warm waves, sand and hot sun every day.Now we look at how the cold can be the Indian Ocean.Photo its waters, which lie near Antarctica is a typical icy seascape.Here year-round floating icebergs, cold water is given, from the transparent purity of its blue, the air is filled with ozone.In winter, the Indian Ocean in the subpolar zone freezes, increases the level of salinity up to 34%.In summer the glaciers are melting, whereby the concentration of salt in the water is reduced to 32%.The air temperature in the winter is about 30 degrees below zero, and in summer rises only up to 2-3 degrees Celsius.

polar regions

most narrow, surprising and unusual section of the Indian Ocean - a coastal strip near Antarctica.Its width varies from 50 to 100 km, and the whole area is the eternal glaciers that never melt.The local characteristics of the Indian Ocean are, firstly, in the presence of numerous icebergs.They melt, just getting into the warmer latitudes.Coastline itself is not, because the sea and the bays were missing.Before banks eternal ice at the bottom of the Indian Ocean is a giant pit, which is filled with waste waters and the continental glaciers to melt in the summer.Above zero temperature here does not rise ever.Rainfall is almost absent, as much as possible the air is discharged, and the pressure is reduced to the limit.

Summary

We have just briefly considered part of the course subjects Geography, Grade 7.Indian Ocean, on the one hand, is very easy to learn.It is small in its territory, most of it falls on the hottest latitudes, and therefore the water is mostly warm.Much more complicated is its geological structure.Scientists note that this ocean of all existing on the planet is the youngest, and therefore the volcanic processes that occur under a layer of its waters, has not yet been terminated.For the same reason there are so many islands that emerged from the mountains, overgrown with corals.Many see them as a great place to relax, but in fact each such area is seismically unstable and even dangerous.