All people have good and bad days, happy and sad events, there is something that angers, hurts, frustrates, or, on the contrary, leads to the indescribable delight, causes joy and happiness.At such times our face - it's just a book, which you can read all the senses.
But why is this happening?What is it about the structure of the face that allows us to be so different, lively, interesting and multifaceted expression of emotion?It turns out that it is a merit of different types of muscles.That talk about them in this article.
history of learning and discovery muscular structures
the first time the presence of muscles in the human body said in ancient times.The Egyptians, the Romans, the Persians, the Chinese mentioned in the books of these structures under the skin of the person.However, the description of the specific muscles like those found much later.So, a great contribution to this made by Leonardo da Vinci.Of the 600-odd drawings of human anatomy, which he left behind, much of it devoted to the muscles, their location on the body structure, appearance.Also, descriptions of muscle found in the works of Andreas Vesalius.
physiology of muscle function was studied by scientists following XVIII-XX centuries:
- Luigi Galvani - discovered the phenomenon of electrical impulses in the muscles and tissues of animals.
- Emil Du Bois-Reymond - formulated the law, reflecting the effect of the current on excitable tissues
- Vvedenskii - describe and set the optimum electrical excitation and pessimum muscle
- Helmholtz, J. von Liebig, Wislicenus, VYDanilevsky and others - have studied in detail and describe the functioning of all the physiological features of the muscle tissue, including heat during exercise and muscle power.
At the present stage of development already formulated almost all possible theoretical descriptions of all functional characteristics of the muscle fibers.Electrophysiology, biochemistry, anatomy and other sciences have contributed to the accumulation of vast knowledge base in this area, so important for medicine.
number and identification of human muscle
Total in the human body has about 640 muscles, each of which performs a specific function.Anatomy of muscles is a set of complex structural parts.
muscles (or muscle) - is the human organs, which is a set of muscle fibers (cells elongated) with smooth or cross-striated pattern.They are held together by means of loose connective tissue structure.In the human body to form a whole system of skeletal muscles (striated tissue) and is lined with many organs and blood vessels (smooth fabric).
By functions performed muscles are divided into the following groups:
- Foot Support.
also a classification of muscles on the location in the human body.Thus, the release:
- trunk muscles (superficial and deep);
- muscles of the limbs;
- muscles of the head (facial and chewing).
On this basis distinguish seven main muscle groups, each group is localized and is functional in a particular part of the body of people.
- spindles are.
Every muscle has approximately the same internal structure of the plan: the outside is covered epimiziem - a special substance-shell, worked out by connective tissue.Inside it is a set of muscle bundles of different orders, which are united by endomysium - connective tissue.This muscle is suitable to each series of blood vessels and capillaries to an adequate supply of oxygen during the operation.Vienna take products of decomposition and carbon dioxide.Nerves, penetrating the fibers provide conductivity, excitability and fast and reliable response (work).
muscle cells themselves have several cores, as during active operation able to produce thermal energy at the expense of numerous mitochondria.His ability to contract the muscles required to special proteins: actin and myosin.They provide this function, causing a reduction in myofibrils - the contractility of the muscle fibers.
The most important function of muscle fibers - contractility and excitability, provide for the common interaction of nerves and protein structures and central nervous system (brain and spinal cord).
This group includes several basic types.The main are:
- muscles of the face (facial muscles) - are responsible for the mimicry, the external manifestations of emotions;
- chewing - perform the same function.
Apart from these, the muscles are distinguished:
- auditory ossicles;
avilable all the muscles of the head, except the cheek, is the lack of fascia - a special "bags" which are all the muscles and is attached directly to the bone.Therefore, the vast majority of its one side is attached to the bones, and the other - free flows directly into the skin, tightly intertwined with it into a single structure.
muscles of facial expression: views
most interesting and clearly show their work looks are just the facial muscles.Due to the function performed, ie the ability to form human facial expressions, and they got their name - the facial muscles.
them there are many.It has only to recall what bizarre and varied may be the expression of our emotions, to understand what kind of work alone or together can not cope.Therefore, the facial muscles are whole groups, and all of their 4:
- generators cranial vault.Forming a circle
- zoster nose.
- eye image of the circle.
consider each group in detail.
muscles of the cranial vault
Mimic muscles of the head, forming the cranial vault, presented occipital-frontal attached to the tendon helmet.Sam hat is a tendon that conventionally divides the muscles into two parts: the frontal and occipital.The main functions performed by such facial muscles of the head - is the formation of transverse folds of skin on the forehead of the person.
This group also includes front and rear ear muscles.Their main effect is to enable ear do move up, down, forward and back.
transverse nuchal muscle - part of the structure of the cranial vault.The main function - movement of the skin at the back of the head.
muscles, forming a circle eye
This is the most expressive facial muscles.Anatomy of them does not imply that the fascia, and the form of such structures are different.
- circular muscle completely surrounds the eyeball in a circle under the skin.It consists of three main parts: the ophthalmic, ages and tear.The action - opening and closing the eyes, slezotoka control, lowering the eyebrows down, smoothing out wrinkles on the forehead.
- Facial muscles, wrinkled brow, mounted on the frontal bone to the skin eyebrows.Function: the formation of longitudinal folds on the bridge.
- muscle proud - the name itself speaks about the meaning - it forms transverse folds at the base of the nose, giving the face an expression of pride and inaccessibility.
These facial muscles allow people to express their emotions only stare, eyes and the skin around them.So much can be said without words, thanks to the peculiarities of the human body.
muscles, forming a circle mouth
Equally important are the other muscles of facial expression.The anatomy of the muscle group is represented by a circular structure surrounding the mouth.There are several major muscles, which in relation to each other are antagonists.This means that a part of them extends mouth slit, and a part, opposite, narrows.
- muscles of the mouth, called the circular.Action: narrowing of the mouth slit and lip forward.
- zygomatic muscles (large and small).Function: the corner of the mouth to move up, down and sideways.
- Features facial muscles of the mouth are that they allow him to move.For example, in the base of the upper jaw has an arm which allows raising the upper lip.Nearby is the one that raises the nose and wing.
- buccinator.Meaning: pulls the corner of his mouth to the side, while reducing both sides allows to draw the inner surface of the cheeks to the jaw.
- risorius.Action: allows you to stretch the corners of the mouth laterally.
- Two genial muscle.Features facial muscles of this type consist in the fact that one of them is unstable, it may reduce it.Function: provide a movement of the skin of the chin and lower lip is pulled forward.
- Muscle, lower lip.The value according to the name.
It's basic oral facial muscles, anatomy which allows a person to smile, talk, express joy and frustration, his mouth moving.
muscles encircling the nose
This group includes only two main muscles:
- bow arm, down from the inner and outer parts.Action: provide the movement of the nose and nostrils;
- muscle, lowering the septum of the nose down.
Thus, in the circle of the nose only two facial muscles.Anatomy of them is no different from the others discussed above.In general, these groups of muscles eyes, mouth, nose and cranial vault - these are the main components of facial expression.Thanks to these muscles people manage to transmit range of feelings, communicate with each other even without words and phrases necessary to reinforce the visual expression.
To mimic muscles are very important structures, responsible also for the formation of wrinkles during the aging process.That is why all the centers involved in plastic surgery and similar procedures are invited to work highly skilled experts who know the anatomy of the muscle.
chewing muscles: variety
Mimic and masticatory muscles - are the main components of the face and head.If the first relates to the 17 different structures, the second group - only 4. However, these four chewing muscles play an important role in human life, as well as in the maintenance of a handsome young oval face.Consider what exactly the structure they are treated.
- Chewing - the most powerful, trained person during a meal muscle.Located in two parts: the deep and superficial.It starts from the zygomatic arch and is attached to the muscles of the lower jaw.
- Temporal - starts from the process of the temporal bone and extends to the lower jaw.
- lateral pterygoid - consists of two parts: the upper and lower head.Starting from the site of the sphenoid bone and end up in the muscles of the lower jaw, forming with them a complex web.
- medial pterygium - is also on the sphenoid bone to the lower jaw.
All these muscles are united by common functions performed, which we now consider.
Naturally, once the muscles are a group of chewing, then there will be a corresponding action: providing versatile jaw movement:
- chewing - jaw raises and pushes forward.
- medial - it provides lateral and other movements of the mandible.
- Lateral - has similar features to the medial.
- Temporal - chief assistant when chewing movements.Pulls back forward of the lower jaw, and also allows it to climb up to the closing of the upper.
In addition, it gives a person the temporal muscle tired, weary and haggard appearance.If a long time in a state of nervous tension, acute emotions and stress, the body starts to lose weight, and the person receives appropriate haggard expression.This is due to the fact that the temporal muscle becomes thinner and obtyagivaya skin, visual changes its topography.
Thus, we can conclude that the facial and masticatory muscles - is the face of our designers, allowing to embed any expressions perform a variety of movement and change a variety of grimaces.And they allow you to make chewing, which is undoubtedly one of the most important life processes of living beings, including humans.