electoral system - a legally binding mechanisms to represent the interests of the people in the state and local authorities.Such mechanisms are formed from three main sources: from national constitutional principles and the historical experience of the public election of leaders of the international standards (of international law), as well as traditional perception of politics prevailing in a particular area.Together, these three components form the effect of the stability of the political system that exists due to the permanent circulation of elites and the change of party representation in the center and on the ground.
concept of the electoral system
in political science, and in the jurisprudence stands two definitions of the electoral system.The first involves the introduction of legal standards and the preservation of the election of people's representatives, as stated above.The second definition states that the electoral system - a standard practice of the counting of votes in elections at any level.Characterized by two features of this approach.Firstly, any electoral system is not exposed to transient audit.Hence, it turns out that the election procedure, and the more votes count, does not depend on the will of the political leader, nor the decision of the dominant party.Secondly, the stored administrative and managerial "gap" between the internal bureaucracy and top officials of the political players.In democratic societies there is often a situation where the public leader of the party enters into a hidden conflict with representatives of local or private intentions minister blocked the departments of the ministry because the activities of the officials by and large does not depend on personal will policy minister.
Electoral systems in their diversity
Traditions formation of electoral systems go back not only to historical but also to religious experience.A classic example in this regard - England where the two-party system is rooted to the effects of the civil war, expressed in opposition to the then conventional parties for "City" and for "Lancaster".With regard to the practice of religious confrontation, in this regard, typical example of Germany - Catholics choosing liberal CDU-CSU and Protestant sympathizers left Social Democrats.As a special (not to the right or the left) are the alternative "green", which already represent a new, "post-capitalist" voter.
Whatever it was, now there are three basic types of electoral systems: majoritarian, proportional and mixed.
majoritarian system - is the election of one deputy in the constituency on the list submitted by the parties and the so-called self-nominated.The winner of the election The candidate who receives a relative or absolute majority of votes.In some cases counted so-called qualified majority as elected the candidate who receives more than 2/3 of the votes.
proportional electoral system - is the election of deputies on the basis of lists submitted by parties.This voting may take place either only for the party ("closed" lists generated by a candidate for voters and non-public), or both for the parties and for the lists at the same time ("open").In the legislature fall parties which received a certain percentage of the vote.Typically it is 3-5%, Israel 1%, in some countries, and the majority of 7%.The membership of the Deputies is formed on the basis of preferential voting for lists.Thus, it appears that the electoral system - a mechanism for conversion of the political elites, not allowing to monopolize power, or some of its powers.
mixed system involves the combination of majority and proportional voting scheme.For example, 50% of the seats elected according to party lists and the other half - in majority.However, in fact, and in another case, priority is given to the party nominees.It is believed that the electoral system - a political representation.And it can provide only candidates from parties or civil society organizations.
Russian electoral system involves parliamentary elections on a proportional basis.The State Duma fall into those political organizations which gained more than 7% of the vote.Lists of parties closed.It is expected that in the next election cycle, scheduled for 2016, the electoral threshold will be lowered to 5%.It is possible that by that time there will be some other modification of the procedure of voting.