What is called the biosphere?

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surrounding area man habitually called nature or habitat.Most of us got the fundamental knowledge about this concept in school lessons: natural sciences (Grade 3), geography and biology (4), anatomy and chemistry (6).But few understand how these sciences are combined, except that they all belong to the natural sciences.To summarize all human knowledge about the world created by one capacious title - Biosphere.Despite many years of research and careful study of the planet Earth still gives scientists reason to think about the processes occurring in it.


What is called the biosphere?Interpretation of this term can be found in the literature are many, and they all differ in content but are virtually identical in meaning.The most common global ecosystem called the biosphere of the planet, in which a person enters as one of the few species.If you translate the name of "biosphere" literally from Greek, it has two roots."Scope" refers to "area, the scope, the ball", and the root of the "bios" means "life."It turns out quite succinct and accurate title which, in fact, defines a complex and multifaceted science.Vernadsky gives extended response to the question of what is called the biosphere.It defines this concept as a set of scientific knowledge about the world, which includes geography, geochemistry, biology, geology.Biosphere - a collection of shells of land, which are combined by the existence of living beings and their habitat.All sectors are different in composition, functions and properties, but each of them plays a significant role in the existence and evolution of the world around us.

doctrine of the biosphere

create a holistic system of knowledge philosopher, scientist, geologist and biochemist Vernadsky.Prior to the beginning of the XX century there was plenty of research on the study of the Earth and the processes taking place in it, but to deepen and generalize the material failed the great Russian scientist.At the beginning of the XIX century French naturalist Lamarck determine the initial concept of the future of science, but did not give her name.Austrian paleontologist and geologist Eduard Suess in 1875, coined the term "biosphere", which is used until today.It will determine this science as knowledge of everything living on the planet.Only 50 years Vernadsky prove the relationship of living organisms and inorganic substances and their circulation.What is called the biosphere at this stage?This is one of the shells of the planet, which interact with the natural elements of various origins, it is their combination creates a unique, balanced system.


Outdoor air shell of the planet Earth.Most of its mass is concentrated at the surface, and it extends to a height of three thousand kilometers.The atmosphere is the lightest of all the membrane, it does not leave the surface only by the force of attraction of the planet, but with an increase in the height of its layers is gradually discharged.The ozone layer provides protection against radioactive exposure to the sun, reducing the level of ultraviolet radiation that reaches the earth.The composition of the atmosphere comprises gases: carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, which ensure the existence of living organisms.


Earth's biosphere includes a portion of the water shell of the planet.Its composition varies according to the state of aggregation of matter.Hydrosphere combines all water resources on the planet, which can be in liquid, gaseous and solid form.The surface layers of the oceans serve to redistribute the heat from the sun through the atmosphere.Of particular importance is the water in the cycle of matter in nature, since it is the most mobile fraction.Organisms in the biosphere completely mastered the watery element, they can be found in the deepest hollows of the bottom of the oceans and glaciers in the Arctic.The chemical composition of the hydrosphere includes the following main elements: magnesium, sodium, chlorine, sulfur, carbon, calcium, and so on. D.


In our solar system, not all planets have a hard shell land in this case is no exception.Lithosphere - a huge mass of rock (hard) rock, which make up part of the land and serve as a bed of the oceans.The thickness of the earth's shell is from 70 to 250 kilometers, its most diverse composition by the number of chemical elements (silicon, aluminum, iron, oxygen, magnesium, potassium, sodium and the like. D.), Which are necessary for the existence of all living organisms.This is characterized by Geosphere least the width of the spread layer of life.The most developed is the top layer of the lithosphere, which is a few meters.With the deepening of increasing temperature and density of the hard shell, which along with the absence of light do not allow the existence of living organisms.

Biosphere Geosphere

It combines all the earth's shell (hydrosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere) by the presence of living matter.For the whole of humanity is difficult to overestimate the role of the biosphere, it is the environment and the source of origin.This complex system of relationships that determine the possibility of the existence of any organism through the exchange of matter and energy.More than 40 chemical elements involved in the process cycle that constantly occurs between organic and inorganic compounds.The main source of energy is the sun.The land is located at an optimal distance from the star, and a protective barrier in the form of the atmosphere.Therefore, along with the living matter of solar energy is the most important biochemical factors existence of the biosphere.Due to the impact of a number of factors the processes have finished the cyclical view, they provide the cycle of matter between the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and living organisms.

boundaries of the biosphere

When analyzing the extent of the shell of the biosphere can see its uneven distribution.The lower boundary is located in the layers of the lithosphere, it does not fall below the 4 km.The top layer of the earth's crust - the soil - is the most saturated density fiber content of living matter of the biosphere.The hydrosphere, which includes expanses of the oceans, rivers, lakes, swamps, glaciers are fully part of the "living shell."The highest concentrations of organisms are observed in the surface layers and coastal waters, but life there and in deep basins, at a maximum depth of more than 11 km, and in the bottom sediments.The upper boundary of the biosphere located 20 km from the surface.The atmosphere limits the "live layer" of the ozone shield, above which organisms will be destroyed by short-wave ultraviolet radiation.Thus, the maximum concentration of living matter is on the boundaries of the lithosphere and atmosphere.


created doctrine of biosphere Vernadsky, he also identified the key role of organisms in the formation and functioning of "living sheath" of the Earth.Previously, came to similar conclusions, and other scientists, but the Russian scientist was able to prove the need for the presence in the structure of inorganic compounds, which are also involved in the general circulation.According to him, the biosphere has the following composition:

  1. living organisms (biological mass, the collection of all kinds).
  2. nutrients (created during the life of living organisms, is a product of their processing).
  3. inert substance (inorganic compounds that are created without the participation of living organisms).
  4. bioinert substance (formed jointly by living organisms and inert matter).
  5. substance having a cosmic origin.
  6. scattered atoms.

History of

Billions of years ago the Earth was formed hard shell - the lithosphere.A further step of forming what is called the biosphere was due to geological processes that the tectonic plates moved, causing volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and so on. D. After the formation of stable geological forms the turn of occurrence of living organisms.They got the opportunity to develop through active emissions of various biochemical elements that have occurred during the formation of the lithosphere.Living matter several million years to create suitable conditions for life.Due to its gradual evolution formed the gas composition of the atmosphere.Constant interaction of organic and inorganic compounds under the influence of solar energy has enabled living matter spread throughout the planet and dramatically change its appearance.


first living organisms appeared on Earth in the hydrosphere, they gradually come to the land lasted long enough period.Mastering another shell of the biosphere - lithosphere, caused the formation of the ozone layer.Through the process of photosynthesis is a huge biological mass is absorbed from the atmosphere of carbon dioxide and releases oxygen.In this case, the living substance use virtually inexhaustible source of energy - the sun.Aerobic organisms that do not have enough organic matter in the interior of the hydrosphere, came to the surface land and greatly accelerated the process of evolution due to the energy circuit.Currently, a "living sheath" of the earth is in a state of stable equilibrium, but humanity has on her increasingly negative impact.A new sphere of the earth - the noosphere, it involves promoting a more harmonious between man and nature, but it is a separate and very interesting to study the topic.Biosphere continues to function despite the significant reduction in biomass, "live shell" seeks to compensate for the damage caused by human activity.As history shows, this process can take a considerable period of time.

biochemical functions

main component in the structure of the biosphere - the biomass.It performs all the biochemical functions of a "living shell," supports its members in a state of equilibrium, the process provides the cycle of matter and energy.Gas function maintains an optimal composition of the atmosphere.It is carried out by the photosynthesis of plants that produce oxygen and absorb carbon dioxide.Living organisms during exhalation, and in the process of decomposition emit CO2.Gas exchange occurs constantly, inorganic compounds are participating in the chemical reactions.The energy function is the assimilation and conversion of biomass (plant) external source - sunlight.The concentration function allows the accumulation of biogenic substances.All organisms in the process of life accumulate the required level of biochemicals that after their death in the biosphere in the form of organic and inorganic compounds.The redox function is a biochemical reaction.It takes place during the life of a living organism and is a necessary part of the cycle of matter.

biomass All living organisms are distributed unevenly on the terrestrial sphere.The highest concentration of biomass is observed in the joints Geospheres planet.This occurs due to the formation of optimal living conditions (temperature, humidity, pressure, the presence of biochemical compounds).The composition of biomass is also not the same type.On land plants have an advantage, in the hydrosphere basis of living matter up animals.The density of biomass depends on the geographical location, depth, habitat in the lithosphere and height - in the atmosphere.The number of species of plants and animals is very large, but the habitats of all organisms is the biosphere.Biology as a separate science, largely explains all the processes occurring in it.This is the origin, breeding, migration of all types of biomass.

Features biosphere

significance and scale of the "living sheath" Earth provides her constant study of new generations of scientists.The system is unique in its integrity, dynamism, balance.As its main and most amazing features can be distinguished stability and resilience.The number of accidents during the existence of the biosphere as a live film of the planet is enormous.They led to the extinction of most of the biomass is significantly changed the appearance of the planet, adjusted the processes occurring on the surface and in the nucleus.But after each stroke Biosphere restored in a modified form, adapting to the negative effects or suppressing it.That is why the biosphere of the earth is a living organism that can self-regulate all the processes occurring in nature.

development prospects

every modern child in elementary school studies such thing as a natural science (Grade 3).In these lessons, the little man explained what the world and what rules it exists.You may want to slightly change the program and to teach children to respect and love nature, then humanity will be able to create a new geosphere.All the accumulated knowledge of centuries of the biosphere must be applied for its further development, which will involve the union of man and nature.It is not too late to correct the damage done to the environment, people need to think about what "living sheath" of the Earth be able to recover, but it can eliminate the object which causes permanent damage to its integrity and harmony.