in different languages the name of the Siberian roe deer sounds in their own way: in English - Siberian Roe Deer, German - Sibirischen Rehwild, Spanish - Corzo Siberiano, in French - Chevreuil de Sibérie.Often, it is also called the East.But few know that the families of these beauties is isolated and other types of deer.A total of five, the book records SCI to correctly account combines them into two: roe deer (three options - pygargus, caucasicus, tianschanicus) and Chinese.There are two subspecies of the latter - bedfordi and mela-notis.More we will focus on the first variant, the most typical representative of this instance of cloven-hoofed animals.
Capreolus pygargus - a small, elegant deer reddish-brown color.This color is peculiar to the animal during the summer.Next roe becomes gray, pale brown, or even black - in the winter season.Her tail is very small, and in the cold it is invisible or absent.Males are larger than females, and have short horn, usually with three dots.The canopy is held from October to January.The new couple that is beginning to grow rapidly, once covered with "velvet" lined with leather, is it supplies the blood to the growing horns.
can see these animals in the north-eastern regions of Asia: Mongolia, the Korean peninsula, in areas of Eastern Tibet, Northeast China, the Tien-Shan.Most of the population of this species of deer living in the southern part of the West Siberian Plain.In particular, it is the most extensive habitat of deer in the Kurgan region.The nature of these places is the best suited for its existence and reproduction.
Biology and breeding season
Siberian roe deer can be active for 24 hours, but the main peaks of its agility - at dawn and dusk.Meet animals can either singly or mixed in small groups.In winter, they tend to form large groups, because it is easier to produce food together.Ration roe is quite wide, it depends on a variety of seasons and includes leaves of shrubs, trees, weeds, acorns, mushrooms, pine twigs and ferns.The breeding season or "rut" occurs from mid-July to August.During this time, the male deer are very aggressive and actively defend their territory.Fights between males tested often.They represent the clash of two males who block each other horns, under pressure and twisting them.These fights can result in serious injury or even death.
winning, the winner can then mate with the female.Courtship includes victory in the pursuit of a female for some time, until it is ready to mate.While the latter takes place in August, the fertilized egg begins to develop until the end of December - beginning of January.Do deer born from one to three cubs, usually in May and June.Very often produced twins.After the birth of their young deer left alone for six weeks.Their discreet color helps mask the fish for a while, but cases of death from predators still high.After this time the cubs stay with their mother.Both sexes differ, but females tend to stay closer to the younger generation than the males.
closest relative of the Siberian species of animals - deer European.Their representatives are similar in lifestyle, environment, power supply system and other areas of life.Only, have only minor differences in appearance.Siberian species has a more massive body.Summer scalp brighter color closer to the redhead.Winter "coat" is much thicker and coarser.Horn clearly directed upwards, the letter V, and never touch.
noteworthy that the deer is a wild animal in Europe, in which hunting is permitted (but not always).Horn this beautiful fauna in value are not inferior to other European trophies.As a rule, the hunting season is customary to begin in early May, while the vegetation has not yet become thick and small-sized deer can easily notice it.
European Roe widespread in England, with the exception of the eastern part (Kent and Midland).Also, it is often found in Scotland, less than in Wales.It lives throughout Europe and Asia Minor, except for the islands of Corsica and Sardinia.No representative of the deer in Lebanon, Israel, Northern Ireland and Eastern Europe.Their distribution has been reduced, the range is fragmented due to hunting and other human interference.There was this fact in the late XIX - early XX centuries.
Externally Capreolus pygargus - a small deer with a long neck without mane, with a relatively large ears (12-14 cm).The tail is in its infancy (2-3 cm) long and can not grow.In winter coloration varies from grayish-brown to dark brown in the summer - from reddish to reddish-brown.Males have dense enough skin on the head, neck and the front of the torso.Tail Patch no or little expressed.In winter, the more noticeable.The top of the head gray or brown, sometimes dark brown.Roe molt twice a year, in spring and autumn.Children of this kind of look spotty.
Horns are present, and each year in October and November of roe shed.New grow almost immediately.Boys are slightly more than girls.In addition, they have their Bugorkova form.The basal rosette clearly defined.
roe deer hooves, which is good photo shows a narrow and short, with well developed lateral muscles.
analysis of 11 different groups of deer showed that the average length of the animal - 107-125 cm, height at the shoulders - 66-83 cm, weight - 22-30 kg, the maximum length of the skull - 191-212 mm and the width - 84-91 mm.In itself it is a small and somewhat elongated.The lachrymal bone is shorter than the diameter of the orbital cavity.Preorbital glands are in their infancy, and the bulls are small drum.The front ends of the nasal bones bifurcate when you click on admaxillary bone.The orbits of medium size.Maxillaries relatively high.
If we talk about the environment, the deer prefer forest and small islands of forest amid arable land.They like the tall grass meadows with shrubs.In addition, they like the islands of land left after deforestation, which are used for reclamation.They also love the tall grass and meadows with shrubs.
Siberian Roe holds a wide range of habitats, including deciduous, mixed or coniferous forests, marshes, pastures and arable land in suburban areas with large gardens.And you've probably already guessed who prefer landscapes with a mosaic of forests and is well adapted to the modern agricultural landscape?That's right - roe deer.Photos in the article show is great.
Roe consume about a thousand different species of plants within their habitats.Of these, 25% are tree crops, 54% - herbaceous dicots, monocots - somewhere 16%.They can have the needles of coniferous trees, but this usually only happens in the winter when other food sources are not available.Roe deer prefer energy-rich foods that are soft and contain a large amount of water.Due to the small size of the stomach and rapid digestion process their body requires frequent ingestion.They generally have from five to eleven separate feeding periods per day.Can be fed with time intervals provided that the food is for them in the best accessibility.
Meals vary according to the season, and habits of animals.However, one study showed that differences in the composition of the diet is more closely correlated with habitat than a season.Feed supplies are reduced in winter, and the diet is less diverse.Consequently, the rate of metabolism and food intake is reduced.In the spring, on the contrary, energy needs and increase the digestion process.A concentrate as seeds or fruits they consume fall.
Siberian Roe eat absolutely all kinds of plants: grass, wild flowers, blackberries, buds and leaves of trees, shrubs, loves mushrooms and various crops.
maximum age, which was recorded - 17 years and 5 months in captivity.From the observations that young females (90%) survive better in the wild.In the wild the average life expectancy of these animals is up to 15 years.It should be noted that the implant may be from 2 to 5.5 months.So overall pregnancy capable last from 122 to 305 days.
Roe males reach sexual maturity age to the end of the first year of life.Nevertheless, they can not begin breeding the offspring to the third year of life.Physiologically capable of reproduction they are from March to October.But mostly, this process lasts from June to August.Only a few individuals that is sooner or later.
Females deer fertility when they reach 14 months.Duration of estrus they usually amounts to 36 hours.
Pregnancy and cubs
Siberian Roe refers to the ungulate, so has the latent period of the pregnancy and, therefore, its reproductive cycle is different from even closely related species.Implantation of the embryo usually occurs in January.The fertilized egg enters the uterus, where it is divided.Followed by 4-5 months of minimal activity.The gestation period is between 264 and 318 days.Fawns are born in the period from April to July.At a time can be born and two, and three baby.They weigh 1-1.7 kg, have a distinctive color.
Cubs virtually helpless for the first few days of life and is easy to fall prey to predators.Feeding breast milk takes place until August, and stops completely at the beginning of autumn, but sometimes lasts until December.After weaning calves completely switching to vegetarian food.They grow rapidly, within two weeks after birth, its growth has exceeded the body weight twice.
status of "protected»
Despite a vast zone of habitats and the excessive number of deer in some countries, up to the negative effects (frequent road accidents), Siberian roe deer is in the Red Book.The grounds for such a ban were: minor remnants of the population, as well as the threat of poaching and predation.Rare representatives of this type of Siberian animals are under serious threat of extinction due to the reduction of habitat, weather conditions and the effects of human activity.Today roe is widely protected in the UK.Some ways to kill or capture a deer is prohibited in accordance with Annex IV of the Bern Convention, and will be prosecuted.In addition to the above, it is known that in the Russian Federation are also efforts to combat poaching and the rational management of hunting economy in order to restore and increase the number of Siberian roe deer.This beautiful wildlife species listed as endangered Tomsk Region and Krasnoyarsk Territory.Imposes order on the offender a penalty for roe varies depending on the severity of the damage is determined individually and in accordance with the law.It may be up to five times the minimum wage.