Battle of the Dnieper was one of the bloodiest in the history of wars.According to various sources, the losses on both sides, counting the dead and wounded were from 1.7 to 2.7 million people.This battle was a whole series of strategic operations carried out by Soviet troops in 1943.Their number includes the crossing of the Dnieper.
Great River Dnieper is the third largest river in Europe after the Volga and the Danube.Its width in the lower reaches of about 3 km.I must say that the right bank is much higher and steeper than the left.This feature greatly complicates the ferry troops.In addition, in accordance with the directives of the Wehrmacht, the opposite bank of the German soldiers stepped up a lot of obstacles and fortifications.
Faced with this situation, the command of the Soviet Army to think about how to make smelters troops and equipment across the river.It developed two plans, under which could occur crossing of the Dnieper.The first option includes a stop troops on the banks of the river and the contraction of extra parts to the places alleged crossings.The plan made it possible to detect deficiencies in the defense line of the enemy, and correctly identify the place where the next attack will occur.
further suggest a massive breakthrough, which was to end in the surroundings of the German defense lines and ousting their troops in the unfavorable position for them.In this position, the soldiers of the Wehrmacht will be absolutely unable to provide any resistance to overcome their defensive lines.In fact, this tactic was very similar to the one that was used by the Germans to pass through the Maginot Line at the beginning of the war.
But this option has some significant drawbacks.He gave the German command to the contraction in the Dnipro district of additional forces, as well as regrouping and strengthening defense forces to better reflect the growing onslaught of the Soviet Army in the appropriate places.In addition, a plan to expose our troops a great danger of being attacked by the German mechanized units connections, and this should be noted, it was almost the most effective weapon of the Wehrmacht from the beginning of the war in the Soviet Union.
second option - the crossing of the Dnieper Soviet forces by applying a powerful strike without any preparation right across the front line.This plan did not give the Germans time for the equipment so-called Eastern Wall, as well as to prepare the defense of its bridgeheads on the Dnieper.However, this option could lead to huge losses in the Soviet Army.
As is known, the German positions were located on the right bank of the Dnieper.And on the opposite side of the Soviet troops occupied land, the length of which is about 300 km.These were drawn enormous strength, so regular boats for such a large number of soldiers lacked.The main parts were forced to make the crossing of the Dnieper literally means at hand.They crossed the river on a randomly found fishing boats, homemade rafts, knocked together from logs, planks, tree trunks and even drums.
Not at issue was the question of how to smuggle the opposite bank of heavy equipment.The fact that many bridgeheads it not time to bring in the right quantities, which is why the brunt of crossing the Dnieper fell on the shoulders of soldiers infantry units.This state of affairs led to prolonged fighting and a significant increase in losses on the part of the Soviet troops.
Finally the day came when the military might moved to the offensive.It began crossing of the Dnieper.Date of first smuggled across the river - September 22, 1943.Then it was taken a foothold, is located on the right bank.It was the confluence of two rivers - the Dnieper and Pripyat, which was located on the north side of the front.Fortieth, part of the Voronezh Front, and the third Panzer Army almost simultaneously were able to achieve the same success in the area south of Kiev.
After 2 days, another position is on the west coast, was captured.This time it was not far from Dneprodzerzhinsk.Even after 4 days, Soviet troops successfully crossed the river in the area of Kremenchug.Thus, by the end of the month on the opposite bank of the Dnieper River formed a base 23.Some were so small that their width is 10 km and a depth of only 1-2 km.
very crossing of the Dnieper held the 12th Soviet armies.In order to somehow disperse the heavy fire, produced by German artillery, it was created many false bridgeheads.Their aim was to simulate the mass crossing.
crossing of the Dnieper Soviet troops - is the clearest example of heroism.I must say that soldiers used even the slightest opportunity to cross to the other side.They crossed the river on any available craft, which could somehow stay on the water.The troops suffered heavy losses, it is constantly under heavy enemy fire.They were able to gain a firm foothold in the already conquered bridgeheads literally buried in the ground by the shelling of German artillery.In addition, Soviet troops fire covered his new powers that come to him for help.
German troops fiercely defended their positions, using powerful counter on each of the crossings.Their primary goal was the destruction of the enemy to the point as a heavy armored vehicles to reach the right bank of the river.
Ferries subjected to a massive attack from the air.German bombers fired at people in the water, as well as military units stationed on shore.At the beginning of actions of Soviet aviation were unorganized.But when it was done sync with the rest of the ground forces, the defense of the crossings to normal.
actions of the Soviet Army were unsuccessful.The crossing of the Dnieper River in 1943 led to the seizure of bridgeheads on the enemy shore.Fierce fighting continued throughout October, but were repulsed by the Germans territory were retained, and some even expanded.Soviet troops saved their strength for the next offensive.
Thus ended the crossing of the Dnieper.Heroes of the Soviet Union - is the most honorable title was awarded in 2438 once the soldiers who participated in the battles.Battle of the Dnieper - an example of extraordinary courage and self-sacrifice shown by Soviet soldiers and officers.This is truly a massive award was only for the time of the Great Patriotic War.