What is science: definition and basic characteristics

What is science?Throughout our lives, we are faced with this concept repeatedly.However, not everyone will be able to give a clear answer to this question.Science is defining the values ​​of modern culture, its most dynamic component.In the modern world it is impossible to discussing social, anthropological and cultural aspects are not taken into account advances in science.

formulating the question "What is science?", We believe that the main objective of the human community or start a direct reception of a new, original scientific knowledge.To examine the concept must be comprehensive: a) as a social institution, b) the accumulation of knowledge as a process) as a result of research in a particular field of knowledge.

science as a social institution

Scientific institutions (academic, research, design and technological institutes, laboratories, libraries, parks, museums, ...) make up the main potential carriers of scientific knowledge.A huge part of scientists concentrated in vocational schools, especially in the universities.Moreover, modern schools and various high schools are increasingly inviting PhDs able to develop in students an interest in innovation.Accordingly, students also attached to the comprehension of search methods in research activities.

Science in this context, can fully carry out its functions only in the presence of qualified personnel.Scientific growth through the creation of scientific schools (usually around a highly intelligent person, a great scientist or a new, promising ideas), by the degree of Candidate, PhD, through graduate school, through training of professionals of the highest qualification in the magistracy.

staff of higher education institutions reaffirm their scientific and pedagogical qualifications, are assigned not only to academic degrees, and academic titles - Associate Professor.

science as a process

define what science is, at this stage, it is necessary to pay attention to a variety of objectives, methods and content of the individual researcher.They are in science, as a rule, are strictly individual, unique in its basic parameters differ from the experts, at first glance, similar professions, such as a psychologist, and the psychologist practitioner-researcher.If the employee's main practical goal is to obtain high performance in the delivery of individual promoschi, the aim of becoming a psychologist and researcher analyzes the accumulated information about mental states, generating new knowledge.

Individual scientific activity has a number of features:

• A clear definition of the purpose of work.

• Research activity is based on the experience of predecessors.

• Science requires the development of a specific terminological apparatus.

• The result of scientific activity must necessarily be executed in strict accordance with the regulations.

Thus, answering the question "What is science?", We can say: this is a specific process, whose main objective - search for patterns and distinguishing feature - a confirmation of phenomena and processes with the help of experimental tests or new, original knowledge.

Science as a result

answer to the question "What is science?" At this level is revealed with the help of reliable knowledge about man and society, of nature.Accordingly, here represented by a set of related science knowledge in all matters known to mankind.A prerequisite is the presence of completeness and consistency of information.Therefore, we can talk about getting extremely reliable knowledge on the present level of achievements, which can be different from the everyday and everyday knowledge of the individual.

highlights some properties of science at this level:

1. cumulative.The volume of knowledge doubles every ten years.

2. Differentiation.A huge number of accumulated knowledge has led to the need crushing Sciences.For example, the applied sciences are beginning to share more specific areas, new industries and cross-industry cycles at the intersection of different scientific disciplines (bio-physical-chemical aspects of methods for the development of medical equipment).

With respect to the practice of science are the following functions:

• Descriptive (accumulation, collecting evidence).It begins with it the formation of any science, for example, the cycle of "economic science".

• Explanatory (through internal mechanisms explain the features of various processes and phenomena).

• Summative (formulation of laws and regularities).

• Predictive (foresight previously unknown processes that have become apparent through scientific knowledge).

• Prescriptive (allows you to work out the best options and recommendations state standards).