What is socialism?This term was first printed in the work of Pierre Leroux in 1834.However, the further definition of the concept they have not been formulated, indicating the opposite of "individualism."Around the same time in England, the term began to be used among the followers of Owen.At that time, the doctrine of socialism generalized need social transformation.
communal socialism, emerged in the mid-19th century in Russia, it has become a clear example of the situation that prevailed at the time.Herzen in his works drew attention to community-based orders, which dominated in the peasant world.According to him, they had to be the beginning of the establishment of the socialist system.Years of experience communal system has led to a whole series of measures that supported the ruined economy.For the peasant community were the characteristic features of the redistribution of land, collective responsibility, collective decision-making.
Already over time Tugan-Baranowski wrote that the creators, responding to a question about what is socialism, would characterize the public a new direction, which pushes the importance of cooperation in society.It was supposed to be the opposite of the economic school, which dominated at the time and recognized that the ideal economic system sole business.
On the basis of the philosophical definition of what socialism was formulated by political ideology, which put forward as a goal a society where there is no exploitation of man, and are approved by the justice and social equality.Discarding the national specificity, this concept for a long time was defined as a form of social organization, where the main productive facilities and land owned by the state, which organizes farming.In addition, it is engaged in the distribution of the products of labor in relation to the principle of "from each according to ability, to each according to his work."
However, history has made its adjustments.What is socialism in the modern sense?It is a society which is dominated by state ownership of the means of production in equality with other forms of property, including private.In addition, it involves a form of political power, which is aimed at satisfying the interests of the entire population.
This definition is closely related to such a concept as "democratic socialism."It refers to a society that has a mixed economy, focused on the interests of the people, it has the same orientation, and state and public control.The fundamental principles of democratic socialism are:
- social justice.In this concept includes public relations, ensuring fair wages, equal opportunities for any person for cultural development, equal protection, and more.In accordance with this principle, mineral resources, forests, water resources and wildlife - the heritage of all the people;
- social equality includes ensuring equal rights for all citizens as well as political and cultural equality, equal social protection and guarantees.