"There is no man that would like an island"
( John Donne )
Society is composed of many individuals who are similar in many ways, but also very different in their aspirations and views on the world experienceand the perception of reality.The moral - what unites us, it is those special rules adopted in the human community, and defining a common sight in the category of such a plan, as good and evil, right and false, good and bad.
defined as moral norms of behavior in society that have formed over many centuries and are used for the correct development of the person in it.The term comes from the Latin word mores, which means socially accepted rules.
have morality, which in many ways is critical to the regulation of social life, there are several basic features.Thus, its fundamental requirement for all members of society are the same regardless of the position.They act even in situations that are outside the area of responsibility of legal principles and apply to such areas of life as creativity, science and production.
public morals, tradition, in other words, meaningful communication between specific individuals and groups of people, allow you to "speak the same language."The legal principles imposed by society, and their failure to bear the consequences of varying severity.Tradition and morality as are voluntary, they each member of the society accepts without coercion.
Types moral standards
For centuries, the moral norms accepted various kinds.So, in a primitive society was so indisputable principle as taboo.People who were proclaimed as transmitting the will of the gods, is strictly regulated as prohibited acts that could threaten the entire society.For their violation would inevitably followed by severe punishment: death or exile, which in most cases was the same.Taboo is still preserved in many traditional societies.Here, as the following examples of morality: it is impossible to be on the temple grounds, if the person does not belong to the caste of the clergy;you can not have children of their relatives.
to morality is not only accepted, resulting in the withdrawal of some of its top, it can be custom.It is an iterative procedure, which is particularly important in order to maintain a certain position in society.In Muslim countries, for example, is the most honored tradition, other than morality.Customs based on religious beliefs, in Central Asia can cost lives.For us, more accustomed to European culture, it is an analogue of the law.It has the same effect on us as Muslims traditional morality.Examples in this case a ban on drinking alcohol, locked in women's clothing.For our Slavic-European society is a custom: oven pancakes on Shrovetide, celebrate the New Year with a tree.Among
moral standards also highlight the tradition - procedures and patterns of behavior that persists over time, handed down from generation to generation.A kind of traditional morality, examples.In this case, these include: to celebrate the New Year with a Christmas tree and presents, maybe in a certain place, or to go to the bath for the New Year.
There are moral rules - the norms of society that people consciously defines for himself and sticks to that choice, deciding that it is acceptable for them.For examples of such norms of morality in this case: to give way for pregnant women and elderly people, to shake hands with a woman when you exit the vehicle, open the door to the woman.
One of the functions is evaluated.Moral examines the events and actions that are taking place in society, in terms of their usefulness or danger for the further development and then his verdict.All sorts of reality is evaluated in terms of good and evil, creating an environment in which each of its manifestation can be assessed both positive and negative.With this feature, one can understand his place in the world and form their position.
No less important is the regulating function.The moral of active influence on people's minds, often acting is better than the legal limit.From childhood through education, each member of the society formed certain views on what can be done and what can not, and it helps him to adjust their behavior in a way that was good for him and for development in general.Morality regulate both internal personal conviction and, therefore, its behavior and the interaction between groups of people, allowing you to keep the way of routine, stability and culture.
educational function of morality is expressed in the fact that under its influence a person starts to focus not only on their own needs, but also to the needs of the people around him, society as a whole.In recognition of the value of the individual is formed, and the needs of other members of society, which in turn leads to mutual respect.A man enjoying his freedom as long as it does not violate the freedom of others.Moral ideals, similar in different individuals, helping them to better understand each other and work together in harmony, positively influencing the development of each of them.
Morality as a result of the evolution
The basic moral principles all the time of existence of the company include the need to do good deeds and do not hurt people, regardless of what position they hold, what nationality he belongs to, the followers of whichreligions are.
norms and principles of morality become necessary as soon as individuals interact.It is the emergence of society and created.Biologists, focusing on the study of evolution, saying that in nature there is also the principle of mutual benefit, which in human society is realized through morality.All the animals who live in society, forced to temper their own selfish needs to be more adaptable to future life.
Many scientists morality is seen as a result of the social evolution of human society, being as natural manifestation.They say that many of the principles and norms of morality that are fundamental, formed by natural selection, survive only when those individuals that can properly interact with others.Thus, in the example of the result of parental love, which expresses the need to protect the offspring from all external threats in order to ensure the survival of the species, and a ban on incest, which safeguard the population from degeneration through a mix of very similar genes, which leads to weak children.
humanism as the fundamental principle of morality
Humanism is a fundamental principle of the norms of public morality.It refers to the belief that every person has the right to happiness and Beschetnov many opportunities for this right to sell, and that the basis of every society should be based on the idea that each participant is valuable and worthy of protection and freedom.
basic idea of humanism can be expressed in the well-known rule: "Treat others as you want them to treat you."Another person in this principle is seen as deserving the same benefits as any particular person.
humanism implies that society should guarantee basic human rights such as the right to life, home and correspondence, freedom of religion and choice of residence, prohibition of forced labor.Society should endeavor to support the people, for whatever reasons, limited in their abilities.The ability to take these people distinguishes human society that does not live according to the laws of nature with natural selection, condemning to death is not strong enough.Humanism also creates opportunities for human happiness, the apex of which is the realization of his knowledge and skills.
Humanism as a source of human morality
humanism in our time draws public attention to human problems such as nuclear proliferation, environmental threats, the need for the development of non-waste technologies and the reduction of production.He says that the containment of the needs and involvement of everyone in solving the problems faced by all of the society, can occur only through the improvement of the level of consciousness, the development of spirituality.It forms a universal morality.
Mercy as the basic principle of morality
Under the charity understand a person's willingness to help the needy in the people to sympathize with them, perceiving them as their own suffering and wanting to ease their suffering.Many religions are paying close attention to this moral principle, especially Buddhism and Christianity.In order for man to be merciful, it is necessary that he was no division of people into "us" and "them" that he saw in each of "his".
Currently much emphasis on the fact that one should actively help those who are in need of mercy, and it is important that it not only provides practical assistance, but was prepared to support morally.
equality as a basic principle of morality
In terms of morality, equality calls for ensuring that human actions were assessed regardless of social status and wealth, but from a general point of view, that approach to human behavior was universal.This kind of situation can be only in a well-developed society that has reached a certain level of economic and cultural development.
Altruism as a basic principle of morality
This principle of morality can be expressed in the phrase "Love your neighbor as yourself."Altruism implies that the person is able to do something good for another person free of charge, it will not be a service that must be answered, and selfless impulse.This moral principle is very important in today's society, when life in the big cities alienates people from each other, creates a sense that taking care of the near-impossible without intent.
Morality and Law
Law and morality are in close contact, because together form the rules in society, but they have some significant differences.The ratio of the law and morality brings out their differences.
rules of law are documented and are being developed by the state as the mandatory rules for non-compliance of which will inevitably be responsible.The estimates are used as a category of legal and illegal, and this is an objective assessment built on governing documents such as the Constitution and the various codes.
Moral norms and principles are more flexible and different people can be perceived in different ways, may also depend on the situation.They exist in a society in the form of regulations that are passed from one person to another and never documented.Morality rather subjective evaluation expressed through the concept of "right" and "wrong," non-compliance in some cases can lead to more serious consequences than a public reprimand or disapproval.For the violation of human moral principles can lead to torment the conscience.
ratio of law and morality can be traced in many cases.So, the moral principles, "Thou shalt not kill," "Thou shalt not steal" correspond to the laws prescribed in the Criminal Code, that the attack on human life and property leads to criminal prosecution and imprisonment.And possible conflict of principles when legal violations - for example, banned in our country euthanasia, which is regarded as the murder of a man - can be justified by moral beliefs - people did not want to live, there is no hope of recovery, the disease caused him unbearable pain.
Thus, the difference of law and morality is expressed only in the legislation.
moral norms were born in a society in the process of evolution, their appearance is no accident.They were needed before, to keep society and safeguard it from internal conflicts, and still perform these and other functions, developing and progressing together with the community.Morality been and will remain an integral part of a civilized society.